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Global radiation monitoring network

The uRADMonitor is a plug-and-play, low power, self contained radiation monitoring device, connected to a centralised server component.

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This project was created on 06/29/2014 and last updated 5 hours ago.

The uRADMonitor is a completely assembled and functional radiation dosimeter unit. In the current models, the radiation detector is a Geiger Muller tube. The electronics provided are self sufficient: there is a fast microcontroller, a precision regulated high voltage supply, a digital counter and a network interface (Ethernet). The detector works by itself, while consuming very little power, measurements show only 0.8Watts of power! It could almost run on a single AA cell for hours, or it could easily be powered by a solar power source.

While the hardware is globally distributed , the second component of the project - the server is a centralised NODE, receiving the data reports. The uRADMonitor sends small packets of data every minute, so we have an excellent resolution to the measurements.

What started as a hobby project with just a simple Geiger Clicker, has now gone digital to global level, and the first units are already running: . Done as DIY.

In the beginning there was the passion for technology. I decided to start a blog and write about the things I've built. I was more into high voltage, physics and various experiments, cool, but with little or zero use to those around me. Then I decided it was time to build something useful, to put my time and energy into something that would eventually come to do good. I already had the high voltage inverters and a few Geiger tubes in my toolbox. In just a few minutes my first Geiger counter was clicking indicating radiation detection. It was early 2011.

As a software engineer, I found microcontrollers exciting, and easy to use. I didn't learn electronics in school, it was something I acquired during my spare time activities. But an effort done with passion overcomes obstacles easier. With my new advances in electronics, I decided to build a radiation monitoring station, with an Ethernet interface to have it function in an automated fashion by pushing data online for anyone to view. Slowly, the idea I was looking for, was shaping into reality.

The station, named uRADMonitor (from micro radiation monitor), quickly caught local press attention. It was featured in online and local publications, and I even had the chance to talk about it on TV.

Pushing things forward I got to learn about PCB design, tiny SMD electronics and hardware bugs (worse than any bugs known to a software developer). It was a long road of finding mistakes and perfecting the design. Some of that is documented in multiple posts on my blog and progress can be tracked there. But finally, in October 2013, precisely one year after my original uRADMonitor station, the first prototype for the new distributed network of radiation detectorswas seeing the daylight and passing the first tests with good results.

This is how uRADMonitor began, in an effort of building a distributed global network of detectors, calibrated to the same reference to offer consistent radiation measurements regardless of location, to function autonomously and use very little power while pushing the data online to the centralised webportal and to be as plug-and-playable as possible requiring the user to only plug in the power cable (5V DC) and the Ethernet cable (for Internet access). All the rest is done automatically: registering to the network for an IP via DHCP, accurately measuring time and radiation pulses and finally sending everything out to the server.

August 19, Stage 2 Updates:

The system design document:

Here is a presentation video:

A previous code revision is available as open source on Google code. Use it as an initial reference. The final code will be released when this project reaches a stable state.

Probably this is one of the best examples of Connected technology, combining the software with the hardware like poetry, going from microcontrollers to Geiger tube and high voltage inverters, coding in embedded C up to PHP and SQL. Hardware dosimeters to do the hard work, and webpages or Android phones to show the data, as the radiation measurements will also be available soon, via an Android app on the Google play. Technology interconnected at its best, to serve a useful purpose and help us all (global) stay safer.

September 12, Stage 3 Updates and video:

The uRADMonitor is a digital radiation dosimeter, enclosed in a rugged aluminium case. Designed to function as nodes, in a distributed network of radiation monitors,the uRADMonitor units are working together to achieve environmental radiation surveillance on a global scale.

Connectivity is a key element of the uRADMonitor design. All units are reporting the readings to a centralized server, where anyone interested can evaluate radiation levels all across the globe.

The devices can be employed in local, personal use, when one needs to constantly monitor a particular location. But the true advantage of this technology comes on a larger scale, where multiple units are working together, to help us understand variations in radiation levels, as affected...

Read more »

  • 1 × enc28j60 mini module Great for opening the internet to microcontroller projects
  • 1 × atmega328p Microprocessors, Microcontrollers, DSPs / ARM, RISC-Based Microcontrollers
  • 1 × Geiger Tube SBM-20 or SI-29BG Russian Geiger tubes made for the military - robust and very accurate
  • 1 × Aluminium Enclosure Rugged enclosure to make the detector indestructible.

Project logs
  • Two new uRADMonitor units in Poland

    5 hours ago • 0 comments

    uradmonitor_in_polandWith some of the new units still in transit, or waiting to get installed, a few others are already up an running. From the list of firsts, it is the time of Poland to come forward with two brand new uRADMonitor radiation monitoring stations in two of the country's biggest cities: Warsaw and Łódź

    The units are measuring normal radiation levels, with unit 11000048 having only slightly higher readings.

  • Hard to solder

    18 days ago • 0 comments

    It's been another day, full of...soldering. To cover the high demand, I've been hard at work producing more units for those interested in helping the network expand. Here's more than 20 PCBs. Tubes will be added later, also the software, and the calibration tests. It's a lot of work, but the neat results make it worth it.

    We will see these soon on , who knows in which of Earth's corners.

  • Powering uRAD Monitors via PoE

    19 days ago • 0 comments

    Jeff wrote a comprehensive guide on how to add POE to uRADMonitor devices


    When I received my URAD Monitor, I was trying to think of the best placement where it would satisfy the requirement to be outdoors but still remain close to a power source. Having worked with PoE WiFi devices before, I contacted Radu to mention a PoE solution I was considering. Since I was able to successfully power my uRAD Monitor via PoE, I documented how I was able to achieve this in hopes it can be of use to others who may be interested in using PoE.

    10/100 Ethernet can run off of just 2 pair (four conductors), which leaves the other 2 pair unused. Passive PoE leverages the unused pairs and sends power over them.

    First, keep in mind that there will be some loss of voltage as you add distance. Assuming 24AWG Ethernet, using 4 conductors (2 pair) for power, a current draw of .160A, and a distance of 10 Meters, the loss should only be about .13 Volts. There are calculators online to help you determine the loss (which is how I came up with this value). Since we are working with less voltage than is typically found in PoE, the voltage drop percentage will be more severe per meter since lower voltages are more greatly affected by the resistance in lengths of wire.

    The uRADMonitor uses 2.1mm DC Barrel Jacks (which are common) and you should be able to use "Passive PoE Injector Cables", like the cable sold by SparkFun: (as an example). However, I opted to purchase DC Barrel Jacks with Screw Terminals (which you can find for a few dollars on ebay). However you decide to use PoE, use a multimeter to make sure that the polarity of the barrel jack is not being swapped, and that power is not inadvertently being sent through the cat5 connector which may damage your device. Avoid using connectors/adapters that are not designed to be used together as they may be built differently or utilize different pairs. Don't use a standard PoE power supply as it may be designed to send 12, 24, or 48 volts.

    Since the cable will be partly outdoors, it is ideal to use outdoor UV Stabilized Ethernet cable (I happened to have Ubiquity TouchCable on hand). Strip a generous amount of cabling because you will have to start over is your Blue/Brown pairs are too short.

    • If your cable has an uninsulated ground wire like mine did, just cut it off
    • Break out the Blue and Brown pair, leaving them long so they can be used for power
    • Shorten the Orange/Green pair since they will be going into the RJ45 connector


    Terminate the end per the T568B wiring order, but only using the Orange and Green pairs:
    Pin1: White/Orange
    Pin2: Orange
    Pin3: White/Green
    Pin6: Green
    Pins 4/5/7/8 will be empty in the RJ45 connector. The Blue and Brown pairs should be stripped at the end and twisted together. Optionally you can use a small amount of solder to fuse them together, but don't use too much or they may not fit into the DC connectors.

    I used the Brown pair (normally pins 7/8) to carry Negative, and the Blue pair (normally pins 4/5) to carry Positive. This is in line with the IEEE 802.3af using spare pairs standard. Insert the stripped wires into the connectors and tighten them down firmly. You will do the same thing at both ends, using a male DC jack on one the uRADMonitor end of the cable, and a female DC jack on the network end. You should end up with something like this:
    (Don't forget the cable is easier to feed through holes BEFORE you terminate it, as I forgot!)20141130_001251

    Verify the polarity on the uRAD end remains correct after traveling through your cable by using a multimeter. On the device side, I had barely enough cable length to be able to reach the DC port. On the indoor side, I used the included USB to DC Barrel Jack cable that came with my device to connect my terminated cable to a power source. The router I use happens to have have a powered USB port which I was able to use to power my uRADMonitor.

    I opted to add a little hot glue...

    Read more »

View all 44 project logs


the Exosmith wrote 16 days ago null point

The military might like this..

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parijat99 wrote 25 days ago null point

I live in India and want to get my hand on one of these could you tell me were to get them.

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radu.motisan wrote a month ago null point

More units will get online the following next days, as they are approaching various destinations all across the globe.

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Spockopolis wrote 3 months ago null point

The metal housing will block alpha and most beta radiation. Ever thought of incorporating a window over the tube to allow measurement of these as well?

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radu.motisan wrote 2 months ago null point

Yes, but that would complicate the design. In this early phase all effort has been focused on making the first units possible. This goes on with private funding, so I'm doing my best. As the project will develop further, we'll see additional features in place.

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Victor Bolshakov wrote 3 months ago null point

Why not use PoE (simplest passive variant)? And why metal case? It will shield same radiation...

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radu.motisan wrote 3 months ago null point

I wasn't able to use POE in Model A because of the enc28j60 ready-made module that I was using for the Ethernet interface. But it is possible to use an external POE adapter. For the future models I might be able to add this feature too.

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Philip Gladstone wrote 3 months ago null point

Interesting -- what type of radiation are you detecting? I would guess that it is mostly Beta. How thick is the aluminum shielding of the case? I would think that that would stop most of the beta radiation...

Have you done any testing / calibration?

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radu.motisan wrote 3 months ago null point

The uRADMonitor is an automated GM detector in a rugged aluminium housing which responds predominantly although not exclusively to gamma radiation.

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Nakul Rao wrote 3 months ago null point

Awesome Project!! I am unable to access the website Is it down?

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radu.motisan wrote 3 months ago null point

I see it is working, can you try again?

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Jasmine wrote 4 months ago null point

Hello radu.motisan, now is the time to add a few more details to your project to give it the best chance of going through to the next round of The Hackaday Prize.

By August 20th you must have the following information on Hackaday Projects:
- A video. It should be less than 2 minutes long describing your project. Put it on YouTube (or Youku), and add a link to it on your project page. This is done by editing your project (edit link is at the top of your project page) and adding it as an "External Link"
- At least 4 Project Logs (you've got this covered)
- A system design document
- Links to code repositories, and remember to mention any licenses or permissions needed for your project. For example, if you are using software libraries you need to document that information.

You should also try to highlight how your project is 'Connected' and 'Open' in the details and video.

There are a couple of tutorial video's with more info here:

Good luck!

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radu.motisan wrote 4 months ago null point

Thanks Jasmin, I'll do my best to meet the requirements before the deadline.


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radu.motisan wrote 4 months ago null point

I believe this entry now has everything in place. Thank you for the reminders, both here and on email.

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davedarko wrote 4 months ago null point

I'm just here to drop my kudos! Awesome project, pleasing pictures!

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Dreistein wrote 5 months ago null point

Have you thought about powering the whole thing over ethernet? Saves the AC/DC adapter

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radu.motisan wrote 5 months ago null point

yes, that would be a good improvement.

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Marius Popescu wrote 5 months ago null point

Awesome project!
I'm curious, do you happen to know a source for buying these russian-made geiger tubes in larger quantities?

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radu.motisan wrote 5 months ago null point

yes, Ukraine :)

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Adam Fabio wrote 6 months ago null point

Great project Radu! Thank you for entering The Hackaday Prize! We need a global network to monitor radiation - ASAP! If you haven't already, you should check out freaklabs talk at the 2012 OH summit, and his work with Tokyo hackerspace. Great starts there!
Keep the updates coming in - How do you test those Russian tubes to be sure they're still good?

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screen Name wrote 6 months ago null point

Nice. Seems like you evaluated the whole thing. Maybe I am blind, but I did nit find an answer to this: Does your current design include a discriminator for evaluating impulses? If yes, I'm curious how it works. I've once used a commercial devie which magically transfers impulses in some gaussian shaped pulse allowing you to cound and evaluate energy. Regards.

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radu.motisan wrote 6 months ago null point

There is a pulse counter and it has a discriminator (part of the digital circuit), but it doesn't extract any information on radiation energy.
This functionality is usually implemented with different detectors such as scintillation probes or proportional counters, not geiger tubes (almost ignoring the radiation energy in their geiger plateau: )
If things go well, we might see an uradmonitor also capable of measuring radiation energy somewhere in the future (perhaps using an array of PIN photodiodes). We could then have a hint on the type of radionuclide involved.

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ghzatomic wrote 6 months ago null point

Very nice man ... great project ... i hope to help the world with my projects as well as you

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radu.motisan wrote 6 months ago null point

Thank you, let's hope for the best!

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paolo wrote 6 months ago null point

you can add more sensors:
pollution sensor
co2 sensor
radon sensor
uv sensor

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radu.motisan wrote 6 months ago null point

I did for the first station built, see: . But for these distributed detectors, I need to keep a balance between costs and reaching the target. What I presented here is the Model A, there will also be a model B, featuring temperature and barometric pressure sensor (needed to estimate altitude).

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Victor Cazacu wrote 6 months ago null point

Awesome work Radu! ;)

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radu.motisan wrote 6 months ago null point

Thank you!

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Mads Barnkob wrote 6 months ago null point

Great to see this project! Most of the other distributed radiation networks is only concentrated in the US with a few measurements from Europe.

I am really looking forward to a greater number of monitors spread around the globe and the possibilities to visualize the data with the google maps API.

Keep up the good work!

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radu.motisan wrote 6 months ago null point

Thanks Mads!

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Łukasz Przeniosło wrote 6 months ago null point

Hey there, great project :). One thing i noticed regarding projects containing ethernet connection is that ppl still tend to use the enc28j60 chip with an 8 bit mcu instead of a 32 bit mcu with ethernet pheripheral on board.
This isnt an attack on your project of any sort! It was just an outloud thought. I wonder either this trend is going to change anysoon.

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radu.motisan wrote 6 months ago null point

Most likely yes, as things evolve, despite there being a rather large inertia on change. Personally I opted for this combination based on previous experience, and for this project there so many obstacles - I had to choose things I knew they would work straight ahead, where possible.

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