• How Zener Diodes are Different From Other Diode Types

    12/19/2021 at 21:44 0 comments

    Circuitry is required for the operation of electrical gadgets in your home. These electronic circuits are constructed in such a manner that current flows in the proper path for each of their functions. Due to the various functions that electricity performs, regulating the passage of power could be difficult. This is the place diodes then come into play. In this article, we would be discussing how zener diodes are different from other diode types.


    Two levels of semiconductor substance, a P-type layer and an N-type layer, are joined to produce a diode. PN Junction is the name given to the connection made by combining these strata. Since holes make up a large portion of charge transfer in a P-type layer, it is known as a positive layer. Since electrons are the predominant transporters in the N-type layer, it could as well be regarded as a Negative type layer.

    Whenever a diode is forward biased, it doesn't begin conducting immediately; instead, it begins to conduct once a certain forward voltage has been reached. This forward voltage is referred to as the diode's knee voltage. Knee voltage varies depending on the semiconductor substrate; it is 0.3V for germanium and 0.7V for silicon.

    The depletion zone expands whenever the diode is reverse biased. The depletion region's thickness, on the other hand, diminishes as the forward bias voltage rises. As a result, in a reversed biased condition, the depletion zone prevents current from flowing through it.

    The minority carriers, on the other hand, could travel in reversed biased mode and generate a modest electricity in the diode. It depends on temperature; suppose that somehow the reverse voltage surpasses a certain amount, the temperature rises, and the minority carriers expand rapidly, causing the diode to burst.

    As a result, it's suggested that a standard PN junction diode be utilized exclusively in forward biased mode.

    Zener Diode

    Diodes are utilized to permit the flow of current unidirectionally via a circuit. Zener diodes working on the other hand differs from other diode types wherein whenever they are connected in a reverse path in a circuit, in a way that the charge travels via another route in a diode, they allow a little leakage of electric charge flow. This kind of charge travels to the earth to stop it from having an effect on other areas of the circuit and also stopping the diode from destroying itself.

    You could begin a conversion between AC and DC by utilizing diodes like Zener diode. Alternating current undergoes alterations between travelling unidirectionally as well as in the other direction while direct current only travels unidirectionally. Majority of those electrical setups feature bridge rectifiers or rectifier diodes.

    AC current could be converted to DC current with the aid of rectifiers only if they permit the unidirectional flow of either positive or negative current via it or by the conversion of AC current cycle from one path and through the other. Rectifiers permit the conversion of DC power supplies which carry current across lengthy paths to the alternating current power that’s discovered in the majority of household equipment.

    Major Distinctions Between Diode and Zener Diode

    • The electric charge’s path which the gadget permits makes a huge distinction between a diode and a zener diode. A diode conducts in one direction while a zener diode conducts two directions in forward biased and also in reverse biased.
    • The doping attributes of a diode and a zener diode vary from one another. The zener diode is a highly doped diode, as it’s also utilized in reverse bias conditions, while the conventional diode is not highly doped as it allows current only in forward breakdown condition.
    • A zener diode’s breakdown voltage is relatively lower than that of a conventional diode whose breakdown voltage is relatively higher.
    • The conventional diode is incapable of operating in a reversed biased mode whilst a zener diode is capable of operating...
    Read more »

  • Types of Transistors in Detail

    12/16/2021 at 21:42 0 comments

    Transistors are active components that can be found throughout circuit boards. They're employed as switching devices as well as amplifiers. They're employed as amplifiers in low level and high level circuits, frequency phases, oscillators, enhancers, sensors, and any circuit that requires a purpose. They're utilized as buttons in electronic systems. There are tons of distinct varieties of semiconductors since there are dozens of distinct producers across the globe who create semiconductors. Low, medium, and high-power transistors are available for use with low and high frequencies, as well as super high current and/or high voltages. This article explains the different types of transistors.

    What is a Transistor 

    The transistor is a piece of electrical components. A p and n-type semiconductor is utilized in creating it. The structure is termed transistors whenever a semiconductor is positioned in the middle of two semiconductors of similar type. A semiconductor transistor can be defined as a serial connection of two diodes. A transistor is a gadget responsible for controlling the passage of current or electricity and serves as a pushbutton or gateway for electrical impulses.

    Types of Transistors

    BJTs and FETs are 2 different types of transistors.

    Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) 

    BJTs are composed of three areas: the base, collector, and emitter. Aside from FETs, BJTs are currently regulated gadgets. A little electricity flowing from the emitter to the collector area of the transistor generates a considerably bigger amount of electricity to start flowing from the base to the emitter. NPN and PNP are the two main types of bipolar junction transistors. An NPN transistor is a transistor wherein electrons make up the bulk of the charge carriers. 

    Most electricity flowing via a transistor is formed by electrons moving from the emitter to the collector. The other sorts of charges, holes, make up a small percentage of the total. PNP transistors are polar opposite of NPN transistors. Most  electricity carriers holes in PNP transistors. PNP and NPN are the 2 varieties of BJT transistors.

    PNP Transistor 

    This transistor has 2 p-type semiconductor substances and it's yet another form of BJT. A small n-type semiconductor substrate separates these substances. Most  current carriers within those transistors were holes, whilst the remainder were electrons.

    The arrows sign throughout this transistor represents the normal electric charge. The electric charge flows from the emitter end to the collector end in this transistor. When the base end is pulled to LOW in comparison to the emitter end, the transistor would then get turned on. Here is a diagram of a PNP transistor featuring a sign.

    NPN Transistor 

    NPN is a variety of BJT that consists of 2 n-type semiconductor substances separated by small p-type semiconductor layers. Most current  carriers inside an NPN transistor are electrons, while the remainder are holed. The electric movement inside the transistor's base end is formed by electrons moving from the emitter to the collector end.

    Inside a transistor, a small electricity delivery at the base end could result in a large electric flow from the emitter to the collector. Because electron mobility is greater than hole mobility, NPN transistors are currently the most widely utilized BJTs.

    Field Effect Transistor

    A gate, source, and drain are the three areas that comprise an FET. Bipolar transistors, sometimes known as FETs, are voltage regulated electronics. A voltage applied to the transistor's gate regulates movement of electricity from the source to the drain. FETs feature extremely high input impedances, ranging from a few mega ohms to far too much higher figures. 

    Because of their high input impedance, they only receive a little amount of current.    As a result, FETs and MOSFETs both drain extremely minimal current from the power supply of...

    Read more »

  • ATmega328 - The Backbone of Arduino Platform

    12/16/2021 at 16:07 0 comments

    The Arduino Uno is a type of ATmega328-based microprocessor board, and Uno is an Italian word meaning "one." The Arduino Uno moniker was chosen to commemorate the imminent launch of the Arduino Uno Board 1.0, a microprocessor board. Digital input/output pins-14, a power jack, analog I/ps-6, ceramics resonator-A16 MHz, a Universal Serial Bus connection, a reset button, and an ICSP header are all included on this PCB. By linking this PCB to the PC, all of these could assist the microprocessor for future functioning.  An AC to DC adapter, a Universal Serial Bus connection, or a battery could all be utilized for powering this board. What an ATmega328  is, pin setup, characteristics and applications are all covered in this article.

    What is Arduino Uno ATmega328? 

    The ATmega328 seems to be a single-chip microprocessor designed by Atmel that's part of the megaAVR series. It  has a Harvard-style structure using an eight-bit RISC processing core. Arduino Pro Mini, Nano, Due, Mega, and Leonardo are a few of the Arduino Uno ATmega328 boards available.

    Features of Arduino Uno Board

    These are some of the characteristics of the Arduino Uno ATmega328 Microcontroller:

    5V is the operational voltage.

    The suggested input voltage would be between 7 and 12 volts.

    The input voltage varies between 6 and 20 volts.

    There are fourteen digital I/O pins and six analog I/O pins. For 3.3V, the power for every I/O pin is 40 mA DC. The current drawn by the pin is 50 milliamperes.

    A total of 32 Kilobyte of flash memory is available.

    SRAM has a capacity of 2 Kilobyte.

    Clock Speed is 16 MHz

    Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory is 1 Kilobyte.

    Physical Characteristics

    The height and breadth of Arduino boards are the most important physical qualities. Its PCB is 2.7" X 2.1" in height and breadth, although the power jack and Universal Serial Bus connector would go beyond this dimension. Alternatively, the casing featuring the screw holes could be utilized when mounting the board to the surface.

    Pinout for the Arduino Uno 

    Power pins, analog pins, ATmegs328, ICSP header, RST button, power Light Emitting Diode, digital pins, test Light Emitting Diode 13, Transmitter/Receiver pins, Universal Serial Bus interface, and an outside power source may all be found on the Arduino Uno board. The following is an overview of the Arduino UNO board:

    Power Supply: The Arduino Uno could be powered using either a USB connection or an outside power supply. A battery or an AC to DC adapter are the most common outside power supplies. The Arduino Uno could be linked to the adapters by inserting it into the Arduino board's power port. Likewise, the battery traces could be linked to the POWER linker's Voltage input and Ground pins. The recommended voltage variety is from 7 to 12V.

    Input and Output (I&O): Through the assistance of routines such as pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and Digital Read(), the Arduino Uno's fourteen digital pins could be utilized as input and output ().

    iPins 1 (Transmitter) and 0 (Receiver) (Serial): They're utilized for sending and receiving Transmitter-Transistor Logic serial data, and are linked to the ATmega8U2 Universal Serial Bus to Transmitter-Transistor Logic Serial chips corresponding pins.

    Pin 2 & Pin 3 (External Interrupts): External pins could be utilized in triggering interrupts whenever a minimum level or modification in values is detected.

    Pin-13 (LED): This pin could be utilized in connecting the built-in Light Emitting Diode (digital pin). Anytime the pin is LOW, the LED is enabled like the HIGH-value pin.

    Analog Reference Voltage: This Voltage is for analog i/ps featuring analogReference().

    RST pin: It is utilized when resetting the microprocessor.

    Memory: This Atmega328 Arduino microprocessor has 32 Kilobyte of flash memory to store codes, 2 Kilobyte of SRAM, and 1 Kilobyte of Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.

    Communication: Universal...

    Read more »