7 days ago 0 comments

    What is MOSFET?

    • MOSFET is an advanced type of FET, having 4 Terminals, named as:
      1. Drain(D)
      2. Gate(G)
      3. Source(S)
      4. Body(B)


    • Gate(G) Terminal is practically insulated from the entire assembly by a thin layer of Silicon-oxide(SiO2).
    • Body(B) Terminal is connected internally with Source(S) Terminal & thus the MOSFET package consists of 3 pins.

    MOSFET stands for "Metal-oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor". Although MOSFET has 4 terminals, as I have mentioned before, the 4th terminal is internally connected with the Source terminal & thus the package consists of 3 Pins, such as the MOSFET Symbol. MOSFET symbols are shown below figure:

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    • Unlike BJT, MOSFET requires almost no input current & controls heavy current at the output.
    • MOSFETs are quicker in operation than FETs, thus used in fast switching applications.
    • FET has high drain resistance, while it's too low in MOSFET.

                                       MOSFET Symbol

  • Microcontroller

    04/10/2021 at 07:18 0 comments

    What is a Microcontroller?

    The microcontroller is considered as the backbone of Embedded Systems(please read it once, before moving forward) & its most important feature is: "It can think". A Microcontroller looks like a simple electronics chip, but in actual it's too powerful (also called Embedded Computer) because it's programmable. Using programming code, we can control all I/O pins of a controller and can perform multiple functions (We will discuss them later). Before microcontrollers, DLD gates were used to create logics i.e. adding delays, turning signals ON/OFF etc. DLD is still in practice for small projects but if you are working on big industrial projects, then DLD circuits become too messy & thus too difficult to handle. In the below figure, I have added two circuits of traffic signal lights:

    • Left Circuit: 555 Timer is used for creating the LED sequences.
    • Right Circuit: Microcontroller is used for controlling LEDs.

    As you can see, the DLD circuit is quite messy as compared to the microcontroller one. Moreover, the 555 Timer circuit is controlling 3 LEDs only, if we want to add more LEDs, we have to replicate the circuit, thus more components, so it won't be cost-efficient. On the other hand, a single microcontroller can easily control 4 sets of traffic lights, as shown below the image and it can still control a lot more. Moreover, Microcontroller's circuit is too simple, easy to handle/debug.

    Microcontroller , Microcontroller Programming, Microcontroller types, types of Microcontroller, Microcontroller examples, Microcontroller applications, Microcontroller vs microprocessor, Microcontroller applications                              Microcontroller Programming

  • NodeMCU

    04/10/2021 at 07:10 0 comments

    Introduction to NodeMCU V3

    NodeMCU V3 is an open-source firmware and development kit that plays a vital role in designing your own IoT product using a few Lua script lines. Multiple GPIO pins on the board allow you to connect the board with other peripherals and are capable of generating PWM, I2C, SPI, and UART serial communications.

    • The interface of the module is mainly divided into two parts including both Firmware and Hardware where the former runs on the ESP8266 Wi-Fi SoC and later is based on the ESP-12 module.
    • The firmware is based on Lua - A scripting language that is easy to learn, giving a simple programming environment layered with a fast scripting language that connects you with a well-known developer community.

    And open-source firmware gives you the flexibility to edit, modify and rebuilt the existing module and keep changing the entire interface until you succeed in optimizing the module as per your requirements.

    • USB to UART converter is added on the module that helps in converting USB data to UART data which mainly understands the language of serial communication.
    • Instead of the regular USB port, the MicroUSB port is included in the module that connects it with the computer for dual purposes: programming and powering up the board. The ability of the module to establish a flawless WiFi connection between two channels makes it an ideal choice for incorporating it with other embedded devices like Raspberry Pi.
    • The board incorporates a status LED that blinks and turns off immediately, giving you the current status of the module if it is running properly when connected with the computer.

                                         NodeMCU Pinout