I've mentioned this before and before I get into other stuff right now, I'll say it again: you can drive this board from a 24 VDC power source. Just because you can though, doesn't mean you should.
There are 2 things you need to be aware of if you wish to do this:
- Primary filter capacitor needs an upgrade
- MOSFETs absolutely need a protection/freewheeling diode
See my parts list for both.
The main point of contention of if this were possible is the SMPS chip, XL1509; datasheet link. It supports a 40V input and supports up to 2 A output. This means that the inductor and output caps probably should be resized, though currently I've not felt a ton of heat from that guy so I haven't even considered swapping it with a lower resistance one for better efficiency.
If you recall my prior findings, the stock hardware configuration allows forma 37-38 V spike when the MOSFETs turn on. Kinda bad for a 30V 'FET, no? And with that being a 12V power brick, just imagine how bad that will be with a 24 V PSU. As long as you have a protection diode in place, you will be okay.
So, if you wish to switch to a 24V hotend, heated bed, and fans, this board will let you with some minor modifications.