I've been doing some research and just making some quick decisions to get things moving quickly. I'll include some useful links here that should help me get the code going for this.
Programming Language: Micro Python
Programming IDE: Thonny
Development PC: Atari VCS
OS: Ubuntu 20.04
SD Card protocol: SPI
LCD protocol: I2C
Hardware order has been placed. The prototype hardware is officially on the way. The biggest hurdle now is finding the time to build and program it. Once everything is working, I'll design a custom PCB and get a few prototypes made.