eForth for cheap STM8S gadgets

Turn cheap modules from AliExpress into interactive development kits!

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STM8 eForth is a compact and structured Forth for interactive programming of cheap µCs. Code and binaries support many low-cost modules (e.g. thermostats like the W1209 or the C0135 MODBUS relay board), and a layered build system makes it easy to add others!

The project supports most STM8 devices, brings a library and serial interface options, uses test automation with uCsim and Docker on Travis-CI, and enjoys e4thcom support for interactive programming.

STM8 eForth is based on Dr. C.H. Ting's STM8EF, an STC Forth that produces machine code. The SDCC tool chain with STM8 assembler and linker is used for building the Forth core, and Forth can be used with C for scripting.

The list of Forth features includes Idle- and Background Tasks, interrupt handlers, I/O redirection, 7S LED or LCD drivers, analog and digital I/O, string evaluation, VOC dictionary extensions, and the unique ALIAS.

What is it?

STM8 eForth is among the smallest user friendly Forth systems for µCs: it brings the simplicity of a 1980s style Forth to today's low-cost controllers. The project provides code for STM8 variants, board support for selected low cost targets, and docs. STM8 eForth has a long feature list but it uses very little memory. Innovative solutions, steady support, and an active community makes using it for new projects easy!

The code and binaries on GitHub can be used in many ways:

  • as an alternative firmware for Chinese commodity boards (e.g. thermostats, DCDC converters, and relay boards)
  • build embedded systems with an interactive shell (scriptable and extensible)
  • for creating smart sensors with SPI, I2C, or RS232 and a scripting shell, e.g. for RaspberryPi, Arduino, or ESP8266
  • as an interactive environment for exploring the STM8 architecture
  • for learning Forth - it's easy and fun (find out why in the text below!)
  • ...

Why a Forth for Cheap Chinese boards?

Because it's fun: cheap mass-produced imperfection is a playground for creativity :-)

The W1209 has long been my favourite target: it's a rather complete embedded control board with a UI at a very good price. It's as cheap as it looks, and the challenge is in it's imperfections: the guy who designed the board clearly didn't have a connected application in mind, and I had a lot of fun making it do things it was never intended to do.

There are challenges, like the lack of communication ports. The "sensor connector" can either be used as a a 2-wire RS232 "bus" or for sensing. If you need sensing and communication at the same time the project also provides a full-duplex 3-wire RS232 interface through the key pins (while keeping the keys functional). A plug-in system makes it easy to test new ideas, like using the "update connector" as a home brew field bus interface!

Which target boards are supported?

Besides generic targets for STM8S001, STM8S103, STM8S105, STM8S207 and STM8L051, there is currently support for the following boards:

Some more boards can be supported on request, e.g.

@Elliot Williams worked on using the ESP-14 as an IoT deviced (the ESP-14 module combines an ESP8266 with an STM8S003F3P6).

Programmable power supplies based on the XH-M188 and a cheap DC/DC converter are both work in progress. There are also several types of STM8S003F3 based voltmeters that are known to work.

Read more about possible future targets below.

Why Forth?

Again, because it's fun!

Forth starts out as a stack machine with a tiny instruction set and minimal hardware requirements. It fits in a few KiB, and the target, even a lowly µC, can even be used as the development system. The Forth stack machine is a minimalistic VM on a standard CPU, but there are also hardware implementations (e.g. for FPGAs, or a 144 core Forth processor). The VM is ideal for fast context switching and Forth easily meets hard-real-time requirements. It's no surprise that Forth was used in many NASA projects.

Consider this:

  • compared to other programming environments Forth is easy to understand fully
  • like Lisp, Forth has a REPL (Read-Evaluate-Print-Loop) which enables software testing in a way impossible with "Edit-Compile-Run-Debug" (e.g. Arduino)
  • it's easy to build Domain Specific Languages (one can literally program the compiler!)
  • the stack-oriented "factoring" method results in implicit data flow and modular code
  • Interpreter-compiler, basic OS functions fit in just 4K code :-)

A Forth programmer is in control of all levels of problem abstraction, a unique advantage in a...

Read more »

Original version of STM8EFalong with docs as received from Dr. C.H. Ting on 21/Nov/2016. The docs are worth reading, the eForth binary will run on the STM8S Discovery.

Zip Archive - 21.97 kB - 11/21/2016 at 20:13


  • 1 × ST-Link V2 ICP adapter (e.g. $2.00 from AliExpress) The ST-Link on an STM8S Discovery Board can be used, too
  • 1 × serial interface adapter /w 3.3V signal level (e.g. $0.60) e.g a USB interfacea with a CH340, or better a PL2303, chip
  • 1 × STM8S target device as listed in the GitHub Wiki (e.g. a $0.70 "STM8S103F3P6 minimal system board") e.g. "STM8S103F3P6 STM8S development board" from your favorite China source
  • 1 × Some headers, patchwires, breadboard etc (about $2.00) and other things you fancy, e.g. a RC-servo, SPI display, LEDs ...

  • STM8L at the center of the STM8 eForth 2.2.26 development cycle

    Thomas08/22/2020 at 06:29 0 comments

    This release will be about STM8L devices (i.e. the likes of STM8L051F3, STM8L151R6 or STM8L162R8). While STM8S peripherals are simple and the pin and clock configuration is trivial, the STML designers clearly had both many more, and much larger, spec sheets.

    Many "more specs" one can clearly see in the number of configuration dependencies one has to infer when configuring one of the many features of the peripherals. @Andrew Clapp started with the C code abstractions for STM8L051 provided by ST: it turned out that it's easy to get results but the code uses the peripherals in a quite wasteful way (e.g. repeated initialization). The code, however, shows that ST's library designers also had a hard time creating something that's both flexible and lean. 

    For STM8 eForth this means that some things that were implicit or hard-coded need to be reviewed and restructured, and tested. A good example is Issue #340: the background task priority now works across devices and families (although STM8L is still limited to using TIM2 for the BG interrupt).

    Another target is symbol files: @Eelco provided a first draft of an STM8L151.efr file. I then made a synthesis of datasheets and improved the generic STM8L.efr so that it covers most STM8L devices (that is all except the STM8L101 family).

    On GitHub you'll find a new pre-release STM8 eForth 2.2.26.pre2 that contains the changes mentioned above and some more goodies.

  • Accessing STM8 Far Memory

    Thomas07/28/2020 at 05:21 0 comments

    STM8 architects some 16bit on top of the ST7 6800-like architecture (at least some fast arithmetic instructions), and the address space for programs was extended by 24bit "Far adressing".

    Unfortunately, access to the "Far" 24bit memory space (in practice it's just 19bit [see edit]) is only possible for the following instructions:

    • 8 bit load/store instructions, limited to "absolute" and "indirect addressing" memory access
    • Jump, call and interrupt vectors for code access

    That's OK since RAM and EEPROM are in an 8bit (zero page) or 16bit memory space, and it doesn't matter where they're executed. Forth, however, cares a lot about ROM addresses: as XTs (Execution Tokens) are data, too, there is no easy way to put "threaded Forth code" into 32K to 96K Flash memory in the extended address space of "High Density" devices like STM8S207 or STM8L162.

    In Forth, the address space can be used for (carefully crafted) interrupt service routines (there is no need to keep these in the dictionary), and for library code written Forth, assembler or C that has an entry point in the 16bit address space.

    Using the STM8 eForth compiler for creating code that runs in the Far address space must take care not to use anything that's based on BRANCH, ?BRANCH or 16 bit addresses on the data stack (that is IF, ELSE, THEN, BEGIN, UNTIL, WHILE REPEAT, FOR, AFT, NEXT, DO, LOOP...).

    That doesn't mean that it's impossible, though: by compiling code that only uses words from 16 bit ROM to RAM and that's limited to relative addressing for control structures, and then copying that code to Far memory, it should work. Anchoring such structures in the 16 bit address space would, of course, still be necessary. 

    At least, from release 2.2.26.pre1 on,  STM8 eForth provides the words FC@ and FC! for accessing memory in the far address space. Words for moving memory between Far memory and the 16bit address space (using block programming and transfer) are planned. As Flash block write code must be executed from RAM, the whole thing is a bit more complicated. As soon as that's available, some of the advanced use cases can be addressed.

    EDIT: I used to believe that the address space is 18bit but there is evidence that there were STM8AF51B High Density devices on offer with 256K Flash memory (and 12K RAM, two I2C, two SPI, 3 x UART, 4x16bit timer... ). References to it have almost disappeared since.

  • Release STM8 eForth 2.2.25 - A bit too fast! A bug-fix and an extra.

    Thomas07/10/2020 at 15:06 5 comments

    One can never test enough - literally.

    The STM8 eForth test automation in Travis-CI tests the background task, but it doesn't test its cadence. Maybe that can be done, and maybe it would have been worth doing that. I could have done a manual test - just flashing a W1209 would have shown a flickering LED display - but I didn't. You live and learn...

    @Andrew Clapp first discovered that something was wrong. I then identified the cause: a classic "don't use LDW for timers"-error. I first thought that it only hits STM8L devices but also STM8S, this means the whole release was affected. A quick bug-fix release therefore is the best option.

    @Eelco the praise came too soon - please check if the 2.2.25 release still solves your problem!

    On the plus side: I added INTRX for buffered console RX to the library.  Compilation to RAM at 115200 baud really feels much faster than at 9600 baud!

  • Release STM8 eForth 2.2.24 - Has it really been a year?

    Thomas07/04/2020 at 06:15 8 comments

    "Has it really been a year?" isn't a question - it's the name of the latest release. It's been more than a year since the last release, and there are certainly many reasons for that.

    There were so many changes in the build infrastructure ("modular build"), supported by modularization and some generalizations, that there have been no less than four pre-releases.

    The motivation behind it was a number of STM8 eForth applications that each required some kind of "board support" in drivers, vocabulary selections, peripherals usage and whatnot while the STM8 eForth core itself hardly changed at all.

    On the other hand, configuration options for the following things have improved by a lot:

    • Binaries through "modular build": it's now trivially easy to create a downstream GitHub repository with build automation
    • Peripherals abstraction for timers and serial interfaces used in the core: it's now possible to use any 16 bit timer for ticking the background task, both UARTs of STM8S High Density µCs can be used
    • STM8L devices received more love (e.g. simulated serial interface, peripherals abstraction)
    • Most of the code for anything "non-core" (e.g. board I/O) is now in include files and variants can be put in a board folder where it has precedence

    And feature creep, of course. I'll have to spend some time to document all new features ;-)

    Now there is finally some stability as the following POCs showed the desired results:

    It's safe to say that STM8 eForth is now quite mature and that it will support a range of applications with little effort. Future developments are planned for exploring options in less frugal systems.

  • Improved support for STM8L devices

    Thomas06/26/2020 at 14:40 0 comments

    Were it not for @Eelco and @Ivan Alf STM8L support in STM8 eForth would still be very basic (call me lazy but I don't like comparing th e STM8S and the STM8L reference manual - in my opinion ST should have written it in a way that makes it more visible where things changed and where not.

    Lately. @Andrew Clapp needed a simulated second serial interface for the STM8L051F3, which was only available for STM8S devices. Supporting the TIM4 based UART simulation to the STM8L was quite simple (STM8L TIM4 is like a STM8S TIM6 with minor improvements) but getting the GPIO configuration right required many changes in the way interrupts are defined in the STM8 eForth core code. It was also a good opportunity to test and improve the modular build feature.

    A repository with the working STM8 eForth code for STM8L051F3 is here. In the next STM8 eForth release it will be easier to apply configurations for STM8L.

  • STM8 eForth Wiki: Discussion of `FOR .. NEXT` updated

    Thomas05/29/2020 at 08:31 1 comment

    The STM8 eForth wiki has a page on the usage of eForth `FOR .. NEXT` and its variants. It's a good example why people think that Forth is strange, and that eForth is even more so but it deserves a closer look.

    I updated the page to better explain different loop constructs. The short read provides some insight into building simple code generators.

  • Some STM8S peripherals are equal, some are the same

    Thomas05/24/2020 at 19:58 0 comments

    Across the STM8S family, the reference manual RM0016 describes peripherals such as GPIOs, timers, UARTS, I2C, SSC, ADC, watchdog timers and control of interrupt or control. Variants of these peripherals are often described in great detail, and the variants are given names such as USART, UART1, UART2, UART3, UART4 or even USART and LINUART. Sometimes the same peripheral has a different name in the datasheet of commercial/industrial and automotive grades of the same chip.

    It turns out that subsets of peripheral register addresses are almost always the same. Almost. The timers TIM2 and TIM4 have the same register names in LD (Low Density) as in MD (Medium Density) and HD (High Density) devices but the addresses differ a bit.

    UART irregularities are of a different kind: there are two sets of address and interrupt vectors, let's call them 1st UART and 2nd UART. A LD device has a 1st UART, MD a 2nd UART and HD has both of them.

    For writing device independent low-level code some workarounds can be used:

    1. provide a symbol file that contains a shared functional sub-set of peripheral register addresses
    2. provide identical symbols for peripheral registers with common functionality in different symbol files
    3. first define device independent symbols in low-level application code from device specific symbol files, first then load device independent code

    Workaround 1 has now been implemented by STM8s.efr in the current master branch of STM8 eForth. It should work for most applications that use common peripherals (e.g, GPIOs, I2C or SSC) and for almost all peripherals of STM8S MD or HD devices (e.g. STM8S105K4 or STM8S207RB).

    For UART addresses there is a partial implementation of workaround 2 in STM8S103.efr, STM8S105.efr and STM8S207.efr: a default UART can be accessed using the alias UART (which is wither the 1st UART or the 2nd UART).

    Code that implements workaround 3 turned out to be quite ugly and difficult to maintain. I'll now try to combine the first two options based on the use case (common peripheral addresses or peripheral register alias). Hopefully that works better.

  • Simple buffered UART RX

    Thomas05/23/2020 at 15:54 0 comments

    The MODBUS project has buffered UART, which is necessary because the protocol works in the background.

    A UART buffer for the Forth console also makes sense, especially when a baud rate higher than 9600 baud is to be used. The solution INTRX, with an ISR written in Forth, is really simple.

    Edit1: INTRX has been updated and now supports the new device independent UART symbols. The code will be included in the upcoming STM8 eForth 2.2.24 release. Compiling with a 38400 baud console is really a lot faster.

    The In PulseView screenshot below shows a situation where the Background Task blocks the foreground console execution most of the time:

    An interactive console still works. For some reason compiling is much more picky : the background task is allowed to run for a 2.5 out of 5 ms (that is 2-3 char intervals at 9600 baud). I still don't understand why but it has nothing to do with delays due to Flash programming.

    Edit2: the solution is, very simply, that the receive buffer wasn't big enough for this much delay. If I use 80 bytes (the same length as the TIB) uploading Forth code works without problems:

    Also Flash programming works as expected - this is no surprise since the programming process starts at the end of a line and stalls all, also the background task.

  • Some more refactoring enables new use cases

    Thomas05/15/2020 at 07:40 0 comments

    From the start, STM8 eForth "background task" used TIM2. The consequence is that Timer2 Capture/Compare, e.g. for PWM, has to use the Background task repeat rate, a multiple of it, or otherwise disable the background task feature altogether. Sure, there are alternatives, e.g. Idle Task or low level interrupts, but these have different properties with respect to I/O or freedom-of-interference with the console.

    Now I got a use-case where the frequency of the TIM2 PWM2 has to be completely free (1Hz to 150kHz), and still a normal background task is needed. Obviously the background task had to be moved to a different timer, e.g. TIM1 ( @Ivan Alf  I guess you'll recognize the code for the XY-LPWM board even if I changed it a bit :-) ).

    Another use case where some hardware abstraction is necessary is the project #MODBUS Things with STM8 eForth : different STM8 devices use a first or a second address range and interrupt vector for the UART (or both). The UART name, however, depends on features and not the address. Since in most cases a common subset of features is sufficient new naming conventions provide a robust solution.

    The required changes are in the current STM8 eForth 2.2.24.pre4 "beta".

  • How to make STM8 eForth support Your Board

    Thomas04/18/2020 at 07:03 0 comments

    As announced in the previous log, STM8 eForth now has a Modular Build feature. This doesn't sound like much but it massively reduces the effort of supporting your design!

    The repository contains the DEMO board configuration folder which is both how-to and example.

    In hindsight, this is a very good example for bad web site design since the most important part of the manual is easily overlooked (even if the technical structure is right).

    If you want to try it, a good way of using this repository is downloading the code as a zip file and then make your own repository. The structure is the message, and forking will add little benefit. You can, of course, give credit and star the repo :-)

View all 150 project logs

  • 1
    Step 1

    Get some cheap hardware (e.g. a STM8S103F3P6 breakout board for $0.65 and a ST-Link V2 dongle for $2). download the binary release, flash it, and have fun!

    If you like it, and you want to hack board support code for your favorite STM8China gadget, you need:

  • 2
    Step 2

    a Linux SDCC tool chain installation (installation instructions for SDCC & stm8flash are in the Wiki)

  • 3
    Step 3

    Clone the project on GitHub

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Enjoy this project?



Ken Yap wrote 05/17/2020 at 03:15 point

For what it's worth, I've contributed a wizard to the code::blocks IDE to handle stm8 projects for people who like IDEs. I still do a lot with a text editor and Makefiles.

At the moment you have to install it yourself in your C::B wizard directory, but hopefully some C::B developer will adopt it for a future release. They invited me to submit a patch, but I didn't want to download the whole SVN tree or get involved in C::B development. So many interesting projects, so little time.

C::B is:

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 05/17/2020 at 05:53 point

Hi Ken, thanks! I had a look at code::blocks - I loved using SVN and I still miss the clarity and ease-of-use it provides for centrally hosting repositories. Collaboration and integration in a community is a different beast, though and I wouldn't want to go back :-)

For the code::blocks IDE some OS/desktop environments appear to be more equal than others (e.g. TurtoiseSVN integration). It might be interesting if a Forth terminal or a ST-LINK debug interface can be integrated. I didn't find anything on "tethered development". How do you use it for µCs like the STM8?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Ken Yap wrote 05/17/2020 at 06:04 point

At the moment the only integration I have is a Makefile rule to call stmflash.  😁 It's a weak point of the OSS stm8 tools that there isn't a debugger or simulator or ICE. Perhaps an onboard stmforth monitor can be part of the solution?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 05/17/2020 at 15:52 point

As far as I know no-support is a thing of the past. I've never tried it (since I have Forth as a "monitor" and uCsim for the rare cases when it really got difficult).

You're right, using Forth as a driver for unit testing C routines can be useful. So far, however, I didn't have an STM8 application that would have required using C...

  Are you sure? yes | no

Ken Yap wrote 05/17/2020 at 23:09 point

C::B is supposed to support gdb but I haven't got around to trying that. I just noted a couple of days back that there wasn't a wizard to start stm8 projects and whipped up one by hacking the mcs51 one. My next stm8 project is still on my ever expanding queue. I ought to finish a few projects before I add new ones. The C::B wizard was a quick hack so I couldn't resist.

  Are you sure? yes | no

marian2002go wrote 05/12/2020 at 01:42 point

Hi, Thomas! Do you think it's possible to program the W1209 thermostat to have the following values hard coded:

1. Heater mode

2. Trigger offset 1°C

3. Minimum temperature 15°C

4. Maximum temperature 35°C

When the SET button gets pushed, the current set temperature will start blinking. Adjusting the preferred temperature using + and - buttons. When the SET button gets pushed the second time, the value gets saved.

Please let me know if this would be possible to achieve and if you are interested in helping me. If yes, we'll speak about the costs in private. Thank you! Dumitru

  Are you sure? yes | no

mikael_lundgren_ak wrote 07/01/2018 at 17:21 point

Thanks for your good answer. 

For beginers a well dokumentet memory map for ram flash and eeprom if used for dichenary would be helpful. also a map of how dichenary entries are saved in ram ore flash. i have read the eforth dokumentation but i still is not totaly clear to me. wbr Mikael.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 07/01/2018 at 17:53 point

Hi Mikael,

did you check the (rather lengthy) explanation in the Wiki?

The STM8 eForth method is rather unique (at least that's what seasoned Forthers say), but it's also robust and, due to ALIAS words, even the EEPROM can be used to increase the available dictionary space.

Have a look at this page:

Besides NVM and RAM there is a number of helper words, e.g. WIPE, PERSIST, :NVM, or EEALIAS. Please have a look at the example code in the lib/ folder.

  Are you sure? yes | no

mikael_lundgren_ak wrote 06/18/2018 at 07:28 point

how can I check all the different usage of memory; flash ram dictionary space user variable space etc. I would like to monitor the memory space automaticly used by the forth vm to understand more and know when i have consumed some area of memory. wbr mikael.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 06/18/2018 at 21:17 point

Check this out:

 To check the free flash area I always use "NVM $A000 here - . RAM"

FYI: WIPE removes the dictionary entries in RAM, and, after defining variables in NVM mode, also moves up the dictionary start in RAM.

Regards, Thomas

  Are you sure? yes | no

mikael_lundgren_ak wrote 04/10/2018 at 13:57 point

Thanks for a good and fast answer, now I have som nice testing to do.

  Are you sure? yes | no

mikael_lundgren_ak wrote 04/09/2018 at 13:42 point

Hi Thomas 

I have been playing with your fantastic eforth now for a while and must say it is both extremly fanny/addictive yet powerful. For me the whole forth concept was new but quickly i got to like the speed of testing and clean way of writing the code. So thank you. I have som questions: for the real beginners more example code with comment would be great specially for using hardware like spi i2c timmers and more. If I build a program but then realize that one of my earliest building words need to be altered, how can i manage this? Is it possible to edit a word by decompiling with SEE and then edit and recompiling ? wbr Mikael

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 04/09/2018 at 18:45 point

Hi Mikael,

it's great to hear that you have fun with STM8 eForth!

Here is a (certainly incomplete) list of example code:

If you need to recompile a word at the base of your dictionary, the Forth development cycle usually requires re-compiling code from the source. Since the source code in most cases isn't stored on the µC, tools like e4thcom, Manfred Marlow's nifty Forth terminal, or, can be used to upload code efficiently (take note of the #include, #require, and \res statements in the examples). It's also possible to change existing code in-place, e.g. by replacing the code of an existing word with a JP to a new word (this has a twist due to the STM8 eForth ALIAS feature!). For a rather elaborate example check out the lib/CURRENT and lib/VOC implementations.

The STM8 eForth core consists of optimized assembly code (even the compiler does some optimizations), and therefore a simple SEE implementation will fail. In order to understand the core it's easiest to compare it with the code in Dr. C.H. Ting's "eForth Overview",

Best Regards

  Are you sure? yes | no

BigVulcanDeal wrote 02/03/2018 at 13:23 point

'You haven't lived until this thing has thrown a 8" pair of vise-grips at you'

It seems the controller for many of the Harbor Freight cordless tools uses an STM8 mcu of some sort.


  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 02/03/2018 at 15:09 point

STM8S are used frequently, but I'd like to see some evidence before I buy that it's "likely a genericized or pin-and-code compatible version available on the Chinese market".
The Meloncraft, however, isn't half bad.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 01/24/2018 at 22:47 point

Hi Thomas

I am having an issue with MARKER. Compilation stops when I call a word that is defined just before in the same file. If I use MARKER from version 2.2.19 it works fine. Did I miss something, once again?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 01/25/2018 at 03:25 point

Hi Eelco, could you please let me know the version or git hash you're using? Also please provide a code example, e.g. in a GitHub Gist or even better, as an Issue :-)

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 01/25/2018 at 06:27 point

On a second thought... could it be that you ran out of RAM? The available RAM didn't change much since 2.2.19 but its usage by library words might have changed.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 01/25/2018 at 08:31 point

OK, I found what I was doing wrong: I forgot to define a dummy word before calling MARKER. In version 2.2.18 ( I mentioned 2.2.19 but that should be 2.2.18, I skipped 2.2.19) this was done when you uploaded MARKER, in version 2.2.20 you must do it yourself.

My apologies.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 01/26/2018 at 05:40 point

No need to apologize, I still take the blame!
MARKER needs at least one word definition in RAM to operate, and that's not obvious. I'm rarely ever confronted to that because of the "#include STARTTEMP ... TARGET ... ENDTEMP"  template I apply. In my main.fs, TARGET is usually defined as ": TARGET NVM ;"  before STARTEMP in the first module even issues "#require MARKER" ( ).
Maybe I should  re-introduce a dummy word in MARKER. 

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 11/18/2017 at 14:09 point

Hi Thomas

I am encountering strange behavior when allocating ram to variable arrays.

e.g.  NVM variable qqq variable zzz RAM

qqq $20 allot drop

zzz $20 allot drop

qqq $20 $AA fill

zzz $20 $BB fill

qqq $40 dump

  80  AA AA BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB  ________________
  90  BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB  ________________
  A0  BB BB  0  0  0  0  5 61 6C 6C 6F 74  0  0  0  0  _______allot____
  B0   0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ________________ ok

It seems the second array is using the same space as the first one.

I am trying to communicate with sdhc cards FAT32 file systems in SPI mode. Using one array for 512 byte data buffer works great but now I try to define a second array as a filename buffer and I run into this problem. Do you have a solution? Btw I tried with the latest version, 2.2.20.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 11/18/2017 at 15:48 point

Hi Eelco,

there are two issues with your code:

One is related to how VARIABLE works in NVM mode: memory is allocated from a small pool (just 32 bytes) which is reserved during COLD. The implementation is described here: [ ]. Of course you can allocate more memory than there is in the pool, but then you'll have to cycle through cold before using it.

The second is a "Forth thing". You'll have to allocate memory directly after defining the variable. Of course it's possible to create a malloc()-like device, but variables are static.

The following log shows the procedure:

STM8eForth 2.2.20
here . 160 ok
nvm variable qqq $1e allot ram ok
nvm variable zzz $1e allot ram ok
STM8eForth 2.2.20
here . 224 ok
qqq $20 $aa fill ok
zzz $20 $bb fill ok
qqq $30 dump    
  80  AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA  ________________
  90  AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA  ________________
  A0  BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB  ________________
  B0  BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB BB  ________________ ok

I assume that you use a low density device with just 1KiB RAM. You can try using the EEPROM for storing the second buffer - writing it is slow but for manipulating the FAT it might be sufficient.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 11/18/2017 at 17:05 point

OK, thank you very much, this works. I will study the link again. I am using a board with stm8s103f, 1KiB ram indeed.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Roy wrote 11/17/2017 at 14:22 point

Just hooked up a MINDEV STM8S103 directly to an HC12 wireless serial communication module at 9600 baud and have 100% console eForth results over many hundreds of metres.

HC12      STM8S

TXD        RX  PD6

RXD        TX  PD5

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 11/17/2017 at 20:02 point

The HC12 is quite good! I experimented with running Forth on the STM8S003F3P6 that powers the HC12. Maybe I'll continue with it at the end of the year.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Roy wrote 11/12/2017 at 12:02 point

\ C0135 display data 4 bits and power relays with LED for HI nibble

\ 12 NOV 2017 RS
VARIABLE Startaddr

$1000 Var ! \ inner delay
$40 Varloop ! \ outer delay
$8090 Finaddr !
$8080 Startaddr !

: vardelay Varloop @ 0 DO Var @ 0 DO LOOP LOOP ;
: newflasher2
 Finaddr @
 Startaddr @ DUP addr !
  Addr @ DUP . C@ DUP . Byte ! CR
  Byte @ $F0 AND $10 / \ mask and rotate hi nibble
  $10 OR OUT! \ also turn on LED
  Byte @ $F AND OUT!
  Addr @ 1 + Addr !


8080 0
8081 0
8082 5A
8083 26
8084 F7
8085 CC
8086 80
8087 68
8088 CC
8089 80
808A EC
808B 5A
808C 5A
808D 1F
808E 3
808F 51

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 11/12/2017 at 18:31 point

Got one? A nice little board, isn't it?
Also have a look at this one:
I don't know why they call it "5 way relay time control panel" when it has 6 relays, but I ordered one yesterday. The 11.11 price was just $10.35 (€8.87, ₤7.85).

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 10/28/2017 at 14:19 point

Hi Thomas 

I am trying to use a timer interrupt similar to your description ( .

I think I had to rewrite IVEC!:    (: IVEC! 2* 2* $8008 +  ULOCK ! LOCKF ; )  to be able to write to the interrupt vector address. 

: timer_4_interrupt SAVEC 0 $5344 0 b! OUT! IRET ;    \ Simple interrupt routine.

' timer_4_interrupt 23 IVEC!    \ Link interrupt routine to IRQ23 (TIM4 update).

But as soon as an interrupt occurs the chip reboots. How should I proceed to use timer interrupts?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 10/28/2017 at 18:31 point

Hi Eelco,

what a coincidence! I continued working on the interrupt features, and I also got reboots. I'm currently debugging, and as soon as I've figured out what goes wrong I'll let you know!


  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 10/28/2017 at 19:53 point

OK, that was easy but I've got no idea why it ever worked. 

Here is the fix (a new pre-release will be out soonish):

;       SAVEC ( -- )
;       Minimal context switch for low level interrupt code
;       This should be the first word called in the interrupt handler

        POPW    Y
        LDW     X,YTEMP
        PUSHW   X
        LDW     X,#(ISPP)       ; init data stack for interrupt ISPP
        JP      (Y)

;       IRET ( -- )
;       Restore context and return from low level interrupt code
;       This should be the last word called in the interrupt handler

        POPW    X               ; discard CALL return address
        POPW    X
        LDW     YTEMP,X         ; restore context

Edit: the bug was even worse than I thought - the above code does the job.

By the way: you don't need ULOCKF / LOCKF if you set the interrupt vector in NVM mode. I'll also put the interrupt vector addresses into the STM8S103.efr file so that setting an interrupt works with a simple ! (store), and IVEC! is no longer needed.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 10/29/2017 at 09:59 point

Hi Thomas

Wow, that was really fast. I should have asked you a week ago, would have saved me a lot of time.

I tried setting the interrupt vector in nvm mode but with 2.2.17 this forced the chip in a strange loop, even after a power cycle. I then had to reflash the mindev board. (I think I really need to get into assembly). 

Thank you very much for solving this issue.


  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 10/29/2017 at 20:22 point

The bug clearly was on the silly side. Next time please drop me note when it looks like you're stuck :-)

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 10/28/2017 at 21:11 point

I updated the example code:

I used a headerless interrupt handler but with the patch above your code should now work as intended :-)

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 10/28/2017 at 22:08 point

  Are you sure? yes | no

Roy wrote 10/06/2017 at 09:31 point

Microchip produced a humorous self-critical video about the failings of the PICkit 3 vs the older 2. Perhaps ST Micro should be shamed to do the same with their products. I realise that this is off topic but still a good example of how not to do things and take ownership for getting it wrong. My ST Visual Programmer is 3.4.0 Jul 12 2017.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Roy wrote 10/04/2017 at 17:23 point

Having lived in Quebec a long time ago, there is a local swear word that sounds like ST. This is what I say every time I use ST software and hardware. STVP does not even show the latest factory ST-LINK/V2 as an option - 'ST-LINK All Versions' would be useful. The thing never connected as I tried a few times a year over many years. They do nothing to alert you that the target device needs external power. I always had clones that did the job so there was no great urgency to learn it.

Many (all?) of the cheaper USB - STM programming adaptors had figured this out a very long time ago. Even Microchip PICkit 2/3 monitors power on the target but gives the option to power their external devices.

Simply logging in to ST to get free software goes into an email / validation death spiral loop that is a complete waste of our valuable time. If the people of ST responsible for this nonsense worked for me, then they would be all unemployed.  


  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 09/30/2017 at 16:11 point

Hi Thomas

I saw you solved the issue. Great! Thanks.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 09/27/2017 at 18:13 point

Hi Thomas, I am enjoying your project for more then a year now. Today I joined hackaday to be able to participate. I bought a couple of W1209 and mindev boards to play with. I also have an ssd1306 i2c oled display (about $3 at Aliexpress). I managed to drive it using the i2c capabilities of the chip, no bit-banging. This was a few months ago, with version stm8ef-bin.2.2.8 and a MINDEV board. I used $" to compile the text to be send to the display (e.g. : txt $" text" ;) I upgraded to more recent versions, up to 2.2.16, but executing a word that contains $" freezes (or reinitilizes, as with COLD) the board. What am I doing wrong here? Do I have to raise a flag in Can you point me in the right direction?

Btw, I'm happy to share the code if anyone is interested.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 09/28/2017 at 06:07 point

Hoi Eelco,

thanks for letting us know about your work! Your contribution in the I2C field would be very much appreciated!

Also thanks for reporting the issue with $": this is a regression. It's tracked here, and I'll fix it as soon as possible.

The root cause is insufficient testing. Some of the progress for building a test infrastructure is tracked here:

I would love to have you in the team at GitHub. I'm quite sure that the other team members would say the same.

Met friendelijke groeten,

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 09/28/2017 at 08:43 point

Hallo Thomas

Thank you for your kind reply and invitation, I would like to join. I have to warn you though that I have little coding experience but I am learning thanks to projects like yours. How do I proceed to upload the code?

I just saw you have a separate project with W1209 thermostat boards. I use two of such devices in my household: one as a replacement thermostat in a refrigarator. The other one in the boiler of the central heating unit. Maybe I can make small contributions on that project too.

mit freundlichen Grüßen


  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 09/30/2017 at 12:20 point

Hi Eelco,

the only way to gain coding experience is coding. There is still a lot you can do, e.g. write tests (which improves coding skills significantly!), or write library code (e.g. I2C), or do a review (also a great way to learn), or spread the word... Please let us know your GitHub ID, and you'll receive an invite!

A warning about W1209 in safety critical applications:
* only use hobby stuff for adding features that aren't safety critical
* always rely on built-in safety features of the product
* make sure to get a review of your design from someone who knows safety

Creating a HaD-project is a great way to get feedback from experts!

  Are you sure? yes | no

richard wrote 10/05/2017 at 03:08 point

Hi Eelco,

I would welcome seeing your code. I'm likely to use i2c one day and your code will give me a head start.



  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 10/05/2017 at 08:47 point

Hi Richard

Here is the link:

Please let me know if  you have recommendations for improvement.



  Are you sure? yes | no

richard wrote 10/05/2017 at 15:04 point

Hi Eelco,

thanks for the code below. Already I have learned about the B! word from reviewing your code. That's going to help me enormously with my W1209 project where I want to turn an input port into an output port for some of the time.

You've done a much better job than I would have. Thanks again


  Are you sure? yes | no

Eelco wrote 10/05/2017 at 21:59 point

Hi Richard

You're welcome, I am glad it is of use to you. I uploaded another file on my github account with io-manipulating words: io.fs. These words use a numbering of the gpio-portpins. The word io. displays the state of the IDR,ODR,DDR,CR1 and CR2 for a portpin. (e.g. $15 io.  displays these bit states for the  second port (Port B), pin 5. Maybe useful for you as well.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Peter wrote 08/21/2017 at 14:11 point

I'm a newbie and have implemented eForth on a STM8S103F3. While I have successfully implemented the "mystart" boot example which remains in NVM  following a power reset, I just can't seem to get any other created word to be available. Could I have some guidance please? 

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 09/24/2017 at 07:24 point

Hi @Peter, sorry, I noticed your message just now, which is very unfortunate. Yesterday I independently found the problem you were facing. The problem, which existed since 5/August/2017, has been fixed. A new binary release is being prepared.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 09/24/2017 at 08:38 point

I just released v2.2.16 to fix this issue.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Peter wrote 09/25/2017 at 20:56 point

Hi Thomas. On my second MinDev I was able to re-programme it using STVP ID 3.4.0. However as it says "stm8eForth v2.2" which is identical to other boards, how do I distinguish it elegantly via communication? Incidentally the first board which has been running a blink programme as an endless loop on "problem 2.2.13" refuses to re-programme via SWIM reporting not blank though ROP is off. Any suggestions on recovering it?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 09/29/2017 at 18:06 point

Hi Peter,
you have a point there.  @barewires already filed an issue. I'll be looking into it!

  Are you sure? yes | no

Peter wrote 10/13/2017 at 13:50 point

Hi Thomas, small update to follow. I don't know whether it's my ignorance but I was expecting to be able to reply as another indent to your reply 09/29/2017 at 18:06 but replying via 09/24/2017 at 07:24.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Peter wrote 10/13/2017 at 14:28 point

To cover my experience described earlier I'll split it into two responses in case anybody wants to work on that part of it. I have not been doing any compiling but just running STVP in windows burning IHX files as required. Any compiling I'm likely to do will be in Windows as I've found setting up a Linux similar to what I use a challenge (...ST). Zorin I'd suggest is a better start that many.

I solved how to re-programme a stubborn STM8S103F3P6 mentioned by specifically selecting the Option Byte window tab and then using Program > Current Tab.  Then I was able to program as I normally do so by using Program > All tabs.  Possibly a glitch but nothing else worked.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Peter wrote 10/13/2017 at 17:59 point

To distinguish between the different versions of 2.2.xx appearing as v2.2 I've started to modify the IHX file so that the same 4 bytes now display 2v17 for example. I'll explain the procedure for newbies like me used to Windows.

1. Copy the IHX file and rename including the version and change the file type to HEX. e.g. C0135.IHX becomes C0135-2v17.HEX.

2. Open the file using STVP and choose the Program Memory tab to display both the hexadecimal and ascii contents.

3. Go to around line 000081E0 and you should see in the ascii columns on the right  stm8 eForth v2.2. Put the cusor on the v and update. The hexadecimal will change.

4. Save

Now on STVP default settings the files are easily accessible. For me the approach above is easier than directly locating the file with STVP and using the Save As to create the HEX copy. 

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 10/13/2017 at 20:25 point

Hi Peter, thanks for updating on the Windows tools!

I'm currently working on `` - it should mirror the properties of e4thcom (require, \ res, \\ Example). Maybe the same is achievable on Windows with ``.

  Are you sure? yes | no

jeff1937 wrote 07/29/2017 at 07:38 point

Just wondering does anyone know if it could it be possible to read the temperature of a W1209 via wire serial communication ?

In other words I just want to log the temperature to a computer, but still leave the W1209 to function as a thermostat.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 08/05/2017 at 13:08 point

Yes, that's possible. The steps are as follows:

1. determine the R_ntc to voltage function (e.g. using a trimmer and an unmodified W1209, 5 values, e.g. 0 deg C, 80 deg C, and 3 values around (and including) the temperature you care most about)

2. flash W1209-FD from the v2.2.13 release

3. determine the ADC6 values for relevant R_ntc from 1.

4. create an interpolation function from 3.

5. write a simple background task that does thermostat control by reading ADC6 and using 4.

6. read the temperature value from 5. using console commands from your computer. Alternatively send the values in the background task

If you describe your use case more precisely, I can write something to get you started

  Are you sure? yes | no

jeff1937 wrote 08/06/2017 at 00:47 point

Thanks Thomas for the helpful reply.

My applications are to turn off a immersion heating element in a cooking pot when the water reaches near to boiling and secondly to operate a fan in a solar dryer at a temperature around 100C, with computer logging every 10 minutes or so.

Thanks for your kind offer of assistance, but I will try to get some unmodified W1209s operating in a circuit, just to get started first.

If I was able to reflash them, I would hope to retain the 3 digit temperature display.  Which sounds easy as you say they are fully supported by STM8EF vectored I/O.

I guess the key pins don't operate when they are used for serial connection, which is OK because the temperature points could be hard coded in software.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 08/06/2017 at 05:07 point

Jeff1937, thanks for the info! How do you think about making a small project out of this? I've got a feeling that quite some people would be interested in using this :-)

Know what, I've got a couple of spare W1209 boards here. I'll start a new project, and invite you as a team member. Does this sound good?

  Are you sure? yes | no

jeff1937 wrote 08/06/2017 at 06:54 point

Also was thinking that you could use a datasheet for an NTC 10K.

It shows a resistance table between -55 to 125°C.

eg 25°C = 10,000Ω, 80°C = 1,068Ω,  100°C = 549Ω

Then calculate the theoretical voltage at PD6 with a 20k pull-up to 5V.

This would need a later calibration correction adjustment, but should give a good starting point.

  Are you sure? yes | no

jeff1937 wrote 08/06/2017 at 06:59 point

Yes I would like to have a go at making this a project, or helping.

My W1209 boards haven't arrived yet, but there's plenty to learn in the meantime.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 08/06/2017 at 07:02 point

Good idea, at least to validate the temperature readings we get.

By the way, I started a HaD project for this. Let's continue with our discussion there!

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 08/06/2017 at 07:16 point

Ok, great! Get's let started. Please visit the project page, and "Follow" the project to get a notification when there is something new.

There is a first project log, where you can add comments. I also added a GitHub project for code and docs.

See you there!

  Are you sure? yes | no

jeff1937 wrote 08/06/2017 at 08:02 point

OK, will follow you there, thanks Thomas

  Are you sure? yes | no

richard wrote 07/22/2017 at 02:02 point

My first attempt at using a W1209 board has been very rewarding. A couple of suggestions for anyone starting out and for the project team:


1. I had no success flashing the board with the suggested ST software on  You may also consider the ST software used by the person who published the schematic of the W1209. It can be found at


2. When putting the header on for the SWIM connector use 5 pins instead of 4. The 5th pin is a convenient place to tie one end of the diode to for the half duplex link.


3. While the SWIMCOM binary may work on the W1209 board, for the newcomer there is a lot of reward in seeing the "4th" string on the LED display once the binary is flashed. With that feedback you know it is just a matter of getting the serial comms to work.


4. With the extra pin the SWIM connection would be a much better place to have half duplex communications. It would prevent the serial communication from disrupting measurements on the sensor pin while debugging and gives you a pin that your push on connector holds better.


5. Is there a place to share code snippets? For instance, I wanted to blank the display before sending another character to it. I used

 : Clrdisplay \ clear anything showing

        32 E7S 32 E7S 32 E7S ;


I also wanted a delay between displaying “On” and “Off”. I used the following but I suspect there is an easier way:


variable bigtimer


: tSet TIM 1000 + timer ! ;

: tTest TIM timer @ - 0 < ;

: delayInner tSet begin ttest until ;

: delay 0 bigtimer ! begin delayInner 1 bigtimer +! 25000 bigtimer @ - 0 < until ;


If there was a way to share these snippets it may prove useful to the newcomer. Maybe I just don’t understand the features of github well enough *grin*.


Anyway, I can recommend this forth implementation to anyone looking to hack one of these boards. I’m having a blast . I only wish I had found about this project before I built my electric gate controller with an atmel avr chip programmed in assembly. I could have just brought a cheap relay board and achieved the same thing without having to fabricate a board, populate it then program it in assembly.


Keep up the great work team.


Kind regards


  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 07/22/2017 at 08:49 point

Hello Richard, thanks for your comment, it's higly appreciated!
Here are a few pointers to related actions, some new, some in the making.

1: the Wiki is updated

2, 3, 4: using a 5-pin header and a diode is a good idea! I'm currently experimenting with using the W1209 key GPIOs (PC4, PC5) for full-duplex communication, which has several advantages. What do you think?

The usability of STM8EF programming is currently under active development.   Especially a. and b. should be helpful for new users:

  a. improved full-duplex serial code, e.g. for W1209
  b. e4thcom support with libraries
  c. temporay "scaffolding" code in RAM
  d. board hex file generation in uCsim

5: I created a GitHub Gist with your code snippets - let's see if that works as advertised: 

I created an issue on GitHub
It would be great if you could contribute to  taking the decisions for a better W1209 support. Also feel free to open an issue on GitHub for topic oriented discussion.

Thanks again for your contribution.

  Are you sure? yes | no

richard wrote 07/22/2017 at 10:04 point


great stuff. I've been at it all day so real life drags me away for now. I don't have much to contribute on full or half duplex serial. I used Teraterm and slowed it down (25ms each character, 500ms for each line return) so the compiling could keep up. I was happy with that.

The Github Gist is interesting. Over time it could be really useful. Perhaps the main Github wiki needs to alert readers to it's existence?

I'm happy to help out with the W1209 where I can. You've no doubt heard of the saying "the blind leading the blind". 

The W1209 is a great platform and it is very exciting to think that much of what I used F-PC for years ago I could do on something costing so little. I plan to contribute as much as I can. 



  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 07/22/2017 at 12:59 point


the voice of users is important, especially in a hobby project where there is no such thing as "market research" - users know very well what makes a product  useful for them. One I'd like to figure out is if connecting a serial interface to the keys "+" and "-" is acceptable (the keys will remain usable), at last during interactive programming. The other thing is whether support for "sensor header COM" needs to be maintained, or if I can simply replace it with something better :-)

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 07/22/2017 at 17:06 point

FYI: issue #41 is closed (which means that full duplex communication now works without character delays). I'll make a pre-release.

EDIT: please check the project log

  Are you sure? yes | no

RigTig wrote 02/27/2017 at 21:59 point

Thomas mentioned that a better file loader would be nice. Here is my attempt. Simple to start with, but obviously capable of being expanded with features later. It is in Python2 and runs from the command line of the host machine (mine is LinuxMint).


#!/usr/bin/env python2

import serial
import sys
import time

port = serial.Serial(

if len(sys.argv) < 2:
    print('Usage %s ... [fileN]' % (sys.argv[0]))

def upload(path):
    with open(path) as source:
        for line in source.readlines():
            line = line.strip()
            if not line: continue
            if len(line) > 64:
                raise 'Line is too long: %s' % (line)
            print('\n\rsending: ' + line)
            chin = ''
            response_buffer = []
            while chin <> '\v':
                while port.inWaiting() > 0:
                    chin =
            response = ''.join(response_buffer)

for path in sys.argv[1:]:
    print('Uploading %s' % path)


Usage: Save this code as a file (say named and change its permissions to be executable (just the lines in between the code tags). I put in my local /bin folder. Edit so the port matches what you use when using a terminal console to connect to STM8 machine.

WARNING: I've just noticed that the indentation was inconsistently displayed, and python is indentation sensitive. So be very careful with just copy-and-paste. I'll put a copy of it up on RigTig's Big 3d Printer project here on

Either put FILE on first line of the file to be sent, or type it into a terminal console and close it, then use a local command line interface thus: <code>  filename file2send </code>. Enjoy!

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 02/27/2017 at 22:26 point

Hi RigTig, this is cool! Now the last reason not to learn Python (the haploid language, as I use to say) has gone. I'm going to need it in my job, anyway ;-)

PS: I just added the tag v2.2.8.1.snapshot, and this means that the binary size of CORE is below 4096 bytes, complete with the new "transparent" VARIABLE feature

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 03/04/2017 at 11:07 point

I just tried your script - the handshake seems to work, and compiling code to NVM is very fast compared to the "worst case delay" method!

However, I had to interrupt the script with ctrl-c after the transfer was finished. The reason was that my Forth code ended with "HAND", after which waited in vain for the handshake signal.

I can imagine that an improved uploader does the following:

* handle FILE and HAND (no need to include those in source file), or

* terminate transfer when the response is anything but the handshake character

The next thing on a programmer's wish list is a way for including source files (nested, of course). I can also imagine testing if "base code" has already been transferred, e.g. using some query-response between the Forth system and the uploader.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Thomas wrote 02/27/2017 at 22:26 point

Hi RigTig, this is cool! Now the last reason not to learn Python (the haploid language, as I use to say) has gone. I'm going to need it in my job, anyway ;-)

PS: I just added the tag v2.2.8.1.snapshot, and this means that the binary size of CORE is below 4096 bytes, complete with the new "transparent" VARIABLE feature

  Are you sure? yes | no

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