The obvious Arduino board to use I believe to be an Arduino Micro. It contains an ATmega 32u4 which has integrated USB electronics built in.
I did some research and found an ASCII table. This along with the Arduino 'Keyboard' library, which is now built into the IDE, allows a fairly easy piece of code to send keypresses. I asked my good friend Russ to help me out with the code and between us, we got it to work.
The current prototype is programmable via an 8 way DIP switch for any character on the keyboard. I have included a table in the code to aid with this. Just set the code on the DIP switch and every time the footswitch is actuated, the keypress will be sent to the device on the USB cable. Because of the way the Keyboard library works, if you hold the footswitch down, the character will be repeated at the rate you have your keyboard set at.
Although I have designed this as a PC accessory, it should also work on a MAC or Linux machine. I would like confirmation of this if anyone would like to drop me a line.