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Cosmic Array

An array of individual cosmic ray detectors distributed across a landscape to display how cosmic rays arrive as showers of muons.

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Each detector in the array is designed to produce deferent coloured light and sound depending on the trajectory the cosmic ray (muon) passing through it. The observer will witness in real time, how cosmic rays are all around us and arrive in showers, as each detector will seem to randomly twinkle with sound and light. However, as cosmic rays arrive in showers of particles, some of these detectors will trigger in unison on occasion. The experience is something similar to nature, like the sight and sounds of life. Flocks of birds, cicadas, or fireflies, where their actions fade in and out from randomness into unison. Cosmic Rays originate from particles thrown off in the catastrophic death of stars that died long ago and have streamed down throughout the entire evolutionary history of life on our planet. This display reinforces our connection with the scale and age of the universe, the importance of science and the natural world. How tiny our planet is, so precious, rare and fragile.

This project provides an interesting window into the universe and the natural world around us, leaving the observer to form their own connections and conclusions.  Information about Cosmic Rays, what they are, their origins and how to detect them are on my website here: cosmicray.com.au (open source)

I'm working on a number of different design approaches to this project as it will need to be more cost effective if I was to build a larger installation of 100 or more detectors. The detectors in the array may be enclosed in a type of bollard lamp post, sphere, something that hangs on a tree or tripod or is put in the ground like a paving block.

Another aim is to setup an IoT wireless network that links each detector, so for example 100 detectors spread across a hectare might be monitored in real time to produce inspiring graphics and music from overall detector activity. Further, each element of the Cosmic Array is a complete cosmic ray (muon) detector and also a radiation (gamma) monitor. So it is not just limited to a pretty light and sound display, it can also be used to measure both cosmic ray flux and local background radiation levels. Allowing the array to collect useful environmental data over a network or the internet.

Recently I completed a real-time demonstration using 16 Detectors in Adelaide for the Splash Adelaide winter festival on the 2nd and 3rd of September 2017.

Each detector in the array produced a bright flash of one of 4 colours (red, green, blue or white). In the same manner, one of 3 musical notes and all 3 notes ( a Chord) together, depending on the trajectory of the muon that passed through two or more Geiger–Müller tubes simultaneously.  A combination of copper radiation shielding and coincidence detection methods were used to filter out local background radiation.

The Splash Adelaide installation was very successful will allot of public interest, questions and discussion about the universe.  The IoT setup was also very successful using Pi Zero W and we were able to stream live data to another computer where it was mapped into music using MAX/MSP software.  The sounds in the following video including bell sounds from each detector where combined into a beautiful musical soundscape. 

The following video is summary of the build for this project. 

I will also have this array on display along with other detectors I have made at the next Maker Faire Adelaide 2nd November 2017.  Maker Faire Adelaide is the largest Maker Faire in Australia and in the Southern hemisphere. Also the only Maker Faire solely run by volunteers.

Note about: Geiger–Müller Tubes
I've had comments regarding the validity of using Geiger–Müller Tubes for a cosmic ray (muon) detector. Pointing out that Photomultipliers and scintillation panels are best, and yes the are far more effective. However, they are also expensive, whereas Geiger–Müller tubes are relatively cheap and easily available to purchase.

Although I'm currently working on a solid-state detector there are a few issues yet to overcome, so this is still a few months away. But will be a feature of the new detectors

History is full of examples of physicists using Geiger–Müller tubes for cosmic ray observations up to the 80s. Geiger Tube Telescopes (GTT) were used by NASA including many Pioneer spacecraft missions and others. One most notable user was Bruno Benedetto Rossi a famous Italian experimental physicist who made major contributions to particle physics and the study of cosmic rays. At the age of 24, he fabricated his own Cosmic Ray detector using Geiger–Müller tubes and then went on to invent the first practical electronic coincident circuit.

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  • 3 × Resistor 10M Ohm 0.25W, 1/4W SMD 1206 HV
  • 3 × Capacitor 10pF ±5% 1kV Ceramic NP0 SMD 1206
  • 3 × Capacitors 1µF 450V Aluminum 2.5mm Radia
  • 3 × Resistor 47.5k Ohm ±1% 0.25W SMD 0805
  • 3 × Resistor 560k Ohm ±1% 0.125W SMD 0805

View all 30 components

  • Splash Adelaide 16 Detector Array

    Robert Hart09/06/2017 at 09:26 0 comments

    The Splash Adelaide installation was very successful will allot of public interest and questions.  The IoT setup also went well and we were able to live stream data to another computer where it was mapped into music using MAX/MSP software.  The sounds in the following video include bell sounds from each detector and also the combined musical soundscape generated in MAX/MSP. 

  • Cosmic Array goes Live

    Paul Schulz09/02/2017 at 08:01 0 comments

    Collaborators

    Cosmic Array Layout

    Tent for Infrastructure, Visitors and Cosmic Array Information

    See videos: 

  • First build of 16 element array.

    Robert Hart09/01/2017 at 13:25 0 comments

    The last 2 months I have been preparing for my first demonstration project with an installation of an array of 16 detectors in Adelaide Elder Park, South Australia as part of the Winter Splash Adelaide.   It was a lot more work than I expected, but I'm pleased to report it has been successful. It will be installed on the 2/9/2017. More to report soon. Here is a video of the build process from prototype to completed units tested in my back yard.  The sound of the detectors will be recorded at the event soon.

  • SD Cards configured

    Paul Schulz07/30/2017 at 05:41 0 comments

    The software for the detectors has been installed on the SD Cards, and prepared for posting to Robert for installation in the Raspberry Pi Zero's.

    This installation contains new audio files.

    Cosmic Array SD Cards

    Some details

    The OS Image being used is Raspbian Jessie (2017-07-05-raspbian-jessie-lite).

    A Raspberry Pi 3 is used as it provides a wired network interface, as well as a screen and keyboard.

    Once the OS Image has been written to the SD Card (16GB), it is booted with screen and keyboard attached and via the configuration tool (raspi-config), the hostname is set (cosmic-array-*-*), the SSH service is enabled and the Pi is rebooted.

    SSH keys are manually copied to the card using ssh-copy-id.

    An ansible playbook is used to connect to the system via SSH and setup the wireless, additional packages and to checkout the cosmic-array software from GitHub. While this might be slightly overkill for individual cards, these configuration tools will allow all 16 detectors to be modified and updated easily later on. 

    Finally, the 'config/install.sh' script is run from the cosmic-array software to setup boot parameters (audio system overlay), programs started on boot and  audio volume settings. This script will probably be included in the ansible setup process in the future.

  • Code now available on GitHub

    Paul Schulz07/28/2017 at 11:04 0 comments

    The code,  data and files required to drive the RaspberryPi Zero has now been made available via GitHub.

    See: https://github.com/PaulSchulz/cosmic-array

    This code is 'feature complete' for the standalone cosmic array sensor. 

    Suggestion, Comments, Branching and Patches welcome. Distributed under GPL v3.

  • Big problem solved with small fix

    Robert Hart07/23/2017 at 11:35 0 comments

    Recently we completed work on Cosmic Array sound and IoT using the new Raspberry Pi Zero W. But the addition of a Raspberry Pi and the audio amplifier caused the detector to trigger more often than it should.   At first, it didn't seem to be an extra load on the 5V regulator. Nor the Geiger-Muller tubes after a check with a radioactive check source and DSO.    


    Then I remembered! I cut back on components to simplified the circuit design and cut costs.  One of the components I removed was a 4V7 Zener diode on the output of the 10pf coupling capacitor connecting the Geiger-Muller tube to the 555 monostable oscillator trigger pin 2.   At the time of the redesign, I forgot the real reason for the Zener just assuming it was there for voltage protection between the high voltage and low voltage sections.   

    The 555 timer acts as both a Schmitt trigger to shape the negative pulse from Geiger-Muller tube to a +5VTTL and increases the pulse width.  Pin 2 of the 555 is the trigger for the monostable oscillator when it detects ground travelling pulse.  So Pin2 is held at the supply rail voltage by a 47k resistor so when the high impedance negative pulse from the Geiger-Muller tube it triggers.  

    The trouble came when both the Raspberry Pi and the audio amplifier where added to the 5V supply rail that supplies the 555 circuits. Although the quiescent state supply rail measured 5V after coincidence is detected, the Pi plays a wave file and then the Audio amplifier causes ripple currents the trigger the other 555 monostable oscillators causing them to trigger randomly resulting in more ripple currents.  

    The solution is to hold pin 2 at 4.7V with a Zener diode and the problem goes away.   The new boards are also designed with a higher current regulator further reducing this effect.

  • Cosmic Array and the Raspberry Pi Zero W

    Robert Hart07/21/2017 at 08:45 0 comments

    To give each element of the Cosmic Array sound and IoT we are using the new Raspberry Pi Zero W

    The Raspberry Pi Zero W doesn't have sound but with the addition of a low pass filter thanks to information on Adafruit Learn Blog this was quite straight forward.

    Amplified by a  5V 3W Class D amplifier based in the PAM8403 which is cheaper to source as a fully assembled PCB than a chip on its own.

    I needed 16  4 x 4 Raspberry Pi Zero W for an Art installation at Splash Adelaide and although there has been a one order per customer limit imposed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation on suppliers. 

    Thanks to wonderful local Hackerspace Adelaide community we have been able to source 16  x Raspberry Pi Zero W for the task. 

  • Final shape of the detectors coming togeter

    Robert Hart07/15/2017 at 00:05 0 comments

    The last few weeks while Paul has been developing the code for the Pi Zero W we'll be using in this build for IoT networking and sound effects. I've been working on the hardware and ordering parts for 16 detectors. As the detectors will be out in the weather they will need to be waterproof and have the ability add other features at a latter stage.

    The unit will be slightly different to this as I've found a supplier of Outdoor UV resistant Acrylic Spheres.

    The spheres I will be using are on order and should arrive in a few days along with the waterproof enclosures both I've been able to source at wholesale.

    Post Top Light Exterior Opal Acrylic Sphere E27 in 20cm Galactic Oriel Lighting. Exterior IP44 spherical opal acrylic post top. Complete with black polycarbonate base to suit 60mm outside diameter post.

    Gasket seals, stainless steel hardware and IP66 rated , Opaque cover: 200(L) x 200(W) x 130(D)mm, ncludes a 1.8mm galvanised chassis for mounting electronics.


  • Raspberry Pi Pinouts

    Paul Schulz07/13/2017 at 00:36 0 comments

    The following are the proposed pinout allocations for the Raspberry Pi (Pi 3 or Pi Zero W) in the project.

     +--------------+---------+---------+----------+---------+---------+--------------+
     | Description  |    Name |    Mode | Physical | Mode    | Name    | Description  |
     | (Connected)  |         |         |          |         |         | (Connected)  |            
     +--------------+---------+---------+----++----+---------+---------+--------------+
     |              |    3.3v |    3.3v |  1 || 2  | 5v      | 5v      | +5v Supply   |
     |              |   SDA.1 |       - |  3 || 4  | 5v      | 5v      | +5v Supply   |
     |              |   SCL.1 |       - |  5 || 6  | GND     | 0v      | Gnd Supply   |
     |              | GPIO. 7 |       - |  7 || 8  | -       | TxD     |              |
     | Logic Gnd    |      0v |     GND |  9 || 10 | -       | RxD     |              |
     | Chan. Red    | GPIO. 0 |  IN/TRI | 11 || 12 | IN/TRI  | GPIO. 1 | Chan. Green  |
     | Chan. Blue   | GPIO. 2 |  IN/TRI | 13 || 14 | GND     | 0v      |              |
     |              | GPIO. 3 |       - | 15 || 16 | -       | GPIO. 4 |              |
     |              |    3.3v |    3.3v | 17 || 18 | -       | GPIO. 5 |              |
     |              |    MOSI |       - | 19 || 20 | GND     | 0v      |              |
     |              |    MISO |       - | 21 || 22 | -       | GPIO. 6 |              |
     |              |    SCLK |       - | 23 || 24 | -       | CE0     |              |
     |              |      0v |     GND | 25 || 26 | -       | CE1     |              |
     |              |   SDA.0 |       - | 27 || 28 | -       | SCL.0   |              |
     |              | GPIO.21 |       - | 29 || 30 | GND     | 0v      |              |
     |              | GPIO.22 |       - | 31 || 32 | OUT/PWM | GPIO.26 | Audio Out(L) |
     | Audio Out(R) | GPIO.23 | OUT/PWM | 33 || 34 | GND     | 0v      | Audio Gnd?   |
     |              | GPIO.24 |       - | 35 || 36 | -       | GPIO.27 |              |
     |              | GPIO.25 |       - | 37 || 38 | -       | GPIO.28 |              |
     |              |      0v |     GND | 39 || 40 | -       | GPIO.29 |              |
     +--------------+---------+---------+----++----+---------+---------+--------------+
     | Description  |   Name  |    Mode | Physical | Mode    | Name    | Description  |
     +--------------+---------+---------+----------+---------+---------+--------------+
    

  • Event Capture and Recording with Raspberry Pi (Part 2b)

    Paul Schulz07/06/2017 at 08:48 0 comments

    This log entry follows on from Part 1, and Part 2a.

    Transmitting Cosmic Array Detection Events

    The RaspberryPi 3 (or RaspberryPi Zero W) receives events from the detector via the toggling of the General Purpose IO (GPIO) lines. These lines are monitored by software on the Pi, which registers interrupt functions for each line, which is called when an event is detected.

    This means that the processor doesn't need to continually poll the GPIO lines for their state, saving processing time, and can also react immediately (interrupting whatever it was doing), improving reaction time.

    The previous program written to send UDP event packets across the network (udpsend) has been changed to use interrupt functions. While doing this, it was discovered that the WiringPi library also allows multiple programs to be triggered by the same interrupts. This has proven useful for also getting the detector to produce sound effects (eg. play wav files) and the code for this is below:

    /*
     * cosmicray-play.c - Play an audio file on a cosmicray event.
     * usage: cosmicray-play
     */
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #include <wiringpi.h>
    /*  error - wrapper for perror */
    void error(char *msg) {
      perror(msg);
      exit(0);
    }
    /* interrupt functions */
    void my_interrupt(int i) {
      system("aplay audio/beep.wav > /dev/null 2>&1 &");
    }
    void my_interrupt_0 (void) { my_interrupt(0); }
    void my_interrupt_1 (void) { my_interrupt(1); }
    void my_interrupt_2 (void) { my_interrupt(2); }
    void my_interrupt_3 (void) { my_interrupt(3); }
    void my_interrupt_4 (void) { my_interrupt(4); }
    void my_interrupt_5 (void) { my_interrupt(5); }
    void my_interrupt_6 (void) { my_interrupt(6); }
    void my_interrupt_7 (void) { my_interrupt(7); }
    int main(int argc, char **argv) {
      wiringPiSetup();
      /* check command line arguments */
      if (argc != 1) {
        fprintf(stderr,"usage: %s\n", argv[0]);
        exit(0);
      }
      /* setup interrupt handlers */
      wiringPiISR (0, INT_EDGE_FALLING, &my_interrupt_0) ;
      wiringPiISR (1, INT_EDGE_FALLING, &my_interrupt_1) ;
      wiringPiISR (2, INT_EDGE_FALLING, &my_interrupt_2) ;
      wiringPiISR (3, INT_EDGE_FALLING, &my_interrupt_3) ;
      wiringPiISR (4, INT_EDGE_FALLING, &my_interrupt_4) ;
      wiringPiISR (5, INT_EDGE_FALLING, &my_interrupt_5) ;
      wiringPiISR (6, INT_EDGE_FALLING, &my_interrupt_6) ;
      wiringPiISR (7, INT_EDGE_FALLING, &my_interrupt_7) ;
      for(;;){
        delay(100);
      }
      return 0;
    }
    

    Can be compiled with:

    gcc -o cosmicray-play cosmicray-play.c -lwiringPi
    

    Then run it from a directory where a suitable 'wav' file is available.

    Next time: Collecting and storing event data in a database (Part 3).

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Robert Hart wrote 06/10/2017 at 01:56 point

Hi followers, I now receive seed funding for this project for every click of the like button. https://hackaday.io/project/16568-cosmic-array

  Are you sure? yes | no

Andrew Bolin wrote 05/08/2017 at 23:22 point

Congratulations on being one of the winners of the concept round. 

Good to see another Aussie on here! If the project goes well, maybe you could consider bringing it up to Sydney for Vivid.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Robert Hart wrote 05/09/2017 at 07:28 point

Hi Andrew, Thank you, I'm currently building a small array of 20 detectors for the Splash Adelaide Winter festival. Btw I'm originally from Sydney, moved to Adelaide 20 years ago.

  Are you sure? yes | no

DontStalkME wrote 04/05/2017 at 08:43 point

Could you make it cheaper by using tin-can ion detectors? Or make your own GM tubes? You could get funding by pre-selling the boxes on kickstarter. Then after you get some images you can ship them out. This assumes you are not wanting a permanent installation.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Robert Hart wrote 04/08/2017 at 22:15 point

Hi DontStalkME, An Ion detector can indeed detect Muons, in fact the very early discoverers of cosmic rays used such detectors. However, they are slow, unstable and are effected by other environmental factors like humidity.  Nevertheless I have developed a solid state detector using a matrix of low cost SiPIN photodiodes. Just haven't published this yet as it is a rat nest gamma detector and not yet in a coincidence detector configeration. 

  Are you sure? yes | no

biemster wrote 10/23/2016 at 19:03 point

Very nice idea! I've worked for cosmic shower detectors in Holland (HiSparc) and Argentina (Auger). The shower front on earth' surface is usually multiple kilometers wide, what inter-detector spacing are you planning to use?

For HV generation you could consider PWM and a boost converter, something like I did here #ESP8266 Geiger counter. The circuit could easily be adapted to count events on the three tubes on different GPIO's of the uC. That would simplify the schematic quite a bit, and if you choose for the ESP as well you can easily network them together too.

In addition to my inter-detector spacing question, how many stations are you planning?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Robert Hart wrote 10/24/2016 at 06:31 point

Hi Biemster,  Thank you! This in the very early stages of development, mostly a proof of concept. I've built many cosmic ray detectors, Geiger counters and PMT counters, just for lolz.  I have developed a good power supply but I fear it's a little over the top for this project and if I want to build a 100 lets say it would be difficult to fund as a hobby project.  So yes I've been thinking about a boost switch-mode approach.   I'm also considering a solid-state detector as well, which I've also been working on.  For this project I might just build a few using GM tubes as demonstration pieces and then maybe go for some crowd funding.  3 ideas I have for an installation would be 1) bollard lamp post in a city parkland 2) block paving bricks 3) across a remote desert landscape below a hill.  these detectors would be placed a few metres apart and most likely 100 or more.  

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