Coffee is one of the world’s favorite beverages and a major source of caffeine. Also the second most sought-after commodity in the world, with an industry that is worth over $100 billion across the globe. Coffee industry is growing at CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of 5,5 % . On average, 500 billion cups of coffee are consumed on earth every year.
Indonesia is the world’s fourth-largest coffee producer and exporter. Arabica coffee beans market is the promising market in future, especially when talking about specialty coffee. Low quality coffee benchmarked by C prices, while specialty coffee are vague but many argue it strongly linked to the sheer quality. Poor price caused by poor quality. Poor quality affected by many factors, one of the most important is processing. Coffee production consist of several phase. In general there are harvesting or picking, processing, and miling. Processing, if done perfectly, could be an important value added activity to improve coffee quality and so the price. Poor processing caused by traditional, trial and error practices. No up to date technology or data utilization. Processing has various types, each of which can be distinguished from one to another based on the stage and type of treatment. But in the end, all types of processes have the same important stage, which is the drying stage and fermentation process. Drying stage is usually done in greenhouse-alike (drying house) to optimize the process The drying process demands more attention and caution, as if the desired variables were not met, it could lead to a various degraded product.
There are still traditional, trial and error practices and no system of collecting and monitoring data for further utilization. The important variables that affect the drying stage are temperature and humidity of the drying house and fermentation . The quality of coffee beans at stake in the drying process is related to how long the coffee beans are dried. What is desired is a process of moisture reduction that is not extreme, with stable and consistent conditions.
Indonesia as the world’s fourth-largest coffee producer and exporter surprisingly still using traditional, trial and error practices to process its own coffee. Most of coffee farmers and producers still rely on information based on trial and error to process coffee cherry to coffee beans. This non-data driven processing of coffee, leads to inconsistent and even low quality coffee. As the processing phase is one of the most important activities that determines the quality of coffee bean produced along with the quality of the coffee cherry itself, it is important to improve and encourage the producer to have a better practices in coffee processing activities in order to enhance the value and achieve sustainability as a coffee farmer and producer.
Fermentation and drying are two most important activities in coffee processing. Fermentation process refers to reaction of microorganisms such as yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (Lactobacillus) consume and metabolize compounds such as sugars and acids within the cherry. The compounds are then broken down to acids and alcohol. These reactions also determines and makes up flavor of coffee. The acids produced will later add complexity and depth to a coffee, which determines the quality in coffee.1 High quality coffee resulted from a perfect amount of acidity produced, which relate to how long the fermentation took places. Too long or too fast a fermentation process, could resulted in a over reaction, thus resulted in annoying flavours and low quality coffee.
Drying is a later stage of coffee processing after fermentation which determines also the quality of coffee especially in terms of allowing the flavours of coffee to shine, or the term in particular called ‘cleanness’. After fermentation stage, coffee needs to be dried from approximately 60 % moisture content to 11 - 12 % moisture content....Read more »