Computer mice have optical sensors in them that have hundreds of pixels and internal framerates of thousands of frames per second. Many of them allow raw image readout. Reading them at high FPS is another story. I've heard about read speeds of only 10fps over serial. At that speed mouse sensors could only be used to add FiberGrid support to low end MCUs without USB. If you succeed at reading any mouse image sensors at 30 fps or higher using any bus or find inexpensive high fps cameras or CCD/CMOS image sensors, please let me know! Would TOF cameras be any good for this?
Another possibility are CMOS linear image sensors. (Toshiba or Espos) The problem is focusing hundreds of fibers on a short (8 to 30mm) narrow window. You need an MCU to control them. With linear sensors you no longer need FiberGrid software.