Siekkinen, Aku
(Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
We study a subcategory of topological spaces called polyhedrons. In particular, the work focuses on simplicial complexes out of which polyhedrons are constructed. With simplicial complexes we can calculate the homology groups of polyhedrons. These are computationally easier to handle compared to singular homology groups.
We start by introducing simplicial complexes and simplicial maps. We show how polyhedrons and simplicial complexes are related. Simplicial maps are certain maps between simplicial complexes. These can be transformed to piecewise linear maps between polyhedrons.
We prove the simplicial approximation theorem which states that for any continuous function between polyhedrons we can find a piecewise linear map which is homotopic to the continuous function.
In section 4 we study simplicial homology groups. We prove that on polyhedrons the simplicial homology groups coincide with singular homology groups. Next we give an algorithm for calculating the homology groups from matrix presentations of boundary homomorphisms. Also examples of these calculations are given for some polyhedrons.
In the last section, we assign an integer called the Lefschetz number for continuous maps from a polyhedron to itself. It is calculated using the induced map between homology groups of the polyhedron. With the help of Hopf trace theorem we can also calculate the Lefschetz number using the induced map between chain complexes of the polyhedron. We prove the Lefschetz fixed-point theorem which states that if the Lefschetz number is not zero, then the continuous function has a fixed-point.