Air Conditioner PCB Tutorial With its Working

We will be looking at the PCB inside an AC, its components and its functioning and finally look at how the entire AC functions.

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    Hey, what's up, Guys! Akarsh here from CETech.

    Have you ever wondered what's going on in the inner side of your Air Conditioners? If Yes, then you should go through this Article as today I am going to give an insight into the connections and the components that drive our Air Conditioners.

    We are going to look at the block diagram of the Indoor and Outdoor units of the Air Conditioner and after that, we will discuss the components present on the PCB of the Indoor Unit as all of the Smart work is done there only.

    So let's jump straight into it.

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    Working of an AC

    An air conditioner collects hot air from a given space, processes it within itself with the help of a refrigerant, and a bunch of coils and then releases cool air into the same space from where the hot air had originally been collected. This is essentially how all air conditioners work.

    When you switch an AC on and set your desired temperature (say, 20 degrees Celsius), the room temperature sensor installed in it senses that there is a difference in the temperature of the room’s air and the temperature that you’ve chosen.

    This warm air is drawn in through a grille on the indoor unit, which then flows over some pipes which are also known as coils through which the refrigerant is flowing. The refrigerant liquid absorbs the heat and becomes a hot gas itself. This is how heat is removed from the air that falls on the evaporator coils. Note that the evaporator coil not only absorbs heat but also wrings out moisture from the incoming air, which helps in dehumidifying the room.

    This hot refrigerant gas is then passed on to the compressor (inside the outdoor unit). Being true to its name, the compressor compresses the gas so that it becomes hot since compressing a gas increases its temperature. This hot, high-pressure gas then travels to the third component – the condenser which condenses the hot gas so that it becomes a liquid. The refrigerant reaches the condenser as hot gas but quickly becomes a cooler liquid because the heat of the ‘hot gas’ is dissipated to the surroundings through metal fins. So, as the refrigerant leaves the condenser, it loses its heat and becomes a cooler liquid. This flows through an expansion valve – a tiny hole in the system’s copper tubing – which controls the flow of cool liquid refrigerant into the evaporator, so the refrigerant arrives at the point where its journey started.

    The entire process is repeated over and over again until the desired temperature is attained. In a nutshell, an AC unit keeps drawing in warm air and expelling it back into the room until there’s no more warm air left to cool.

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