This project was developed in partnership with Robô Lúdico School and JLCPCB Factory that offers 5 free PCBs of Arduino Compatible Board.

Introduction to autonomous mobile robots

In this project, you will learn how to assemble your first autonomous mobile robot with a movable axis. Autonomous mobile robots are essential in a variety of activities.

Several companies use these autonomous robots to explore environments inaccessible to humans, access to dangerous terrains, and other activities.

In addition to serving in all these activities, autonomous mobile robots can assist in the development of education for children and young people in the world of programming and electronics.

Now you will learn how to build the structure of this autonomous mobile robot with wheels.

This mobile robot is controlled through the Arduino UNO, which processes the signal from the sensors and user control. In addition, it drives the motors of the robot's wheels.

Now, see what you will learn.

  • Understand how the structure of an autonomous mobile robot with wheels works;
  • Understand the functioning of the mobile axis of the mobile robot with wheels with SG90 servo motor;
  • How the Arduino performs the reading of the sensors and control of the motors of the mobile robot with wheels;
  • The interlocking mechanisms of the robot's structure and the operation of its movable axis with the servo-motor;
  • The operating logic of the mobile robot with turn control.

Let's get started?

The process of building a mobile robot

Most mobile robots with wheels are not able to perform cornering movements.

This limitation exists because these mobile robots do not have a movable axle on the front wheels of the robot. In this project, you will learn how to solve this problem and create a movable axle for your mobile robot with wheels.

See, in the photo below, the structure of the robot's movable axis. You will learn the constructive structure and how it worksonthe movable axis of the mobile robot.

The structure of the mobile robot is shown below.

As already mentioned, this mobile robot has a movable axis, which allows us to make curves. Its structure was developed with 2.5 mm MDF material, but you can use any material with the same thickness.

This autonomous mobile robot consists of the following parts:

  • Arduino UNO;
  • Ultrasonic sensor to detect obstacles;
  • DC motors with 4 wheels;
  • Servo motor to control the movement of the shaft;
  • Space for Bluetooth module.

The Arduino is the control board that is responsible for controlling the motors and reading the signal from the ultrasonic sensor of the mobile robot.

It was positioned in the rear region of the robot, to facilitate the programming of the robot and changes in the code. This prevents the user from removing the Arduino.

Figure 8 shows the Arduino installed in the autonomous mobile robot.

The control board is shown below and has the Arduino UNO format. All sensors and drive drivers will be connected in their structure.

The control board is responsible for receiving control commands via Bluetooth or sensors. Based on the information received, it will activate the drivers so that the motors can move the robot in a certain direction.

Did you win the files on that board? Follow this process and get 5 free units. It is easy to assemble!

You must follow all of these steps below.

It sends a signal to trigger the ultrasonic sensor and does the calculation to determine the distance. After that, it allows the mobile robot to move forward the DC Motors or change direction to avoid a possible obstacle.

The DC motors are connected to the L293D driver circuit.

This driver can control the speed of the wheels through the PWM signal, as well as their direction of...

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