This is the third and final part of our Arduino-based Drone Series. In the first part, we made a flight controller for our drone using the Arduino Nano and MPU6050 module. In the second part, we made an Arduino-based Remote Controller Pair to control our drone. Now in this final part of our drone series, we are going to assemble the frame of our drone, load it with motors and ESC's and after that, we will complete the circuitry part as well by connecting the Flight Controller and Radio Receiver that we created. The frame that we are going to use here is the DJI F450 Quadcopter frame. Apart from that, we will use BLDC motors with a kV rating of 1400 and some propellers. One thing to keep in mind is that we use two different types of propellers whenever we use them with our Quadcopter. Two propellers are of one type and two propellers are of different types. We will discuss that in detail ahead in the article.
So let's not waste time and get to the fun part
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Know the Components
Before moving on to the Assembly part, you first need to know the components that we are going to use to better understand what you are doing. So, let's discuss the components one by one:-
DJI F450 Frame: The frame that we have used is one of the best quality frames when it comes to the Quadcopters. The DJI F450 frame is named so because of its diagonal wheelbase i.e. the distance between diagonally opposite endpoints of the frame is 450 mm. The frame is made of ultra-strong material that makes it resistant to crashes. The arms of the drone are designed to support the flight of the drone. Apart from all these, there is an Integrated Power Distribution Board as well, which makes it easy to distribute power among the ESCs without using separate connections for all of them.
Propellers: Propellers are devices that transform rotary motion into linear thrust. The drone propeller provides lift for the aircraft by spinning and creating an airflow, which results in a pressure difference between the top and bottom surfaces of the propeller. You can get a propeller of Glass fiber Up to 3 inches, 3 inches to 7 inches, 8 inches to 10 inches, 11 Inches and above along with Propeller accessories. If you want lightweight and extra strength you can prefer Carbon Fiber Propeller also. The Propellers are of two types. These propellers have a difference in the alignment of their blades which you can observe if you compare them.
BLDC Motors: A brushless DC motor (also known as a BLDC motor or BL motor) is an electronically commuted DC motor that does not have brushes. The controller provides pulses of current to the motor windings which control the speed and torque of the synchronous motor. These types of motors are highly efficient in producing a large amount of torque over a vast speed range. In brushless motors, permanent magnets rotate around a fixed armature and overcome the problem of connecting current to the armature. The Kv rating of a brushless motor refers to how many RPM it turns per volt. The kV rating on a BLDC motor is equal to RPM per VOLT applied to the motor. So a BLDC motor with a kV rating of 1000 kV will spin at 1000 RPM when 1 volt is applied, if you apply 12 volts the motor will spin at 12000 RPM.
Electronic Speed Controllers: An electronic speed control (ESC) is an electronic circuit that controls and regulates the speed of an electric motor. It may also provide reversing of the motor and dynamic braking. An electronic speed control follows a speed reference signal and varies the switching rate of a network of field-effect transistors. By adjusting the duty cycle or switching frequency of the transistors, the speed of the motor is changed. It has two terminals on one side which are to provide power to the ESC and on the other side, it has three wires for connection with the motor and three more wires that are to be connected to the Flight controller for receiving the Control Signal. Using ESC we can also provide a power of 5V which we will do here