Controlled Alternating Solenoid Engine (CASE)

Development of a solenoid engine. A study model based on the repelling force between a permanent magnet and a solenoid.

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Development of a solenoid engine. A study model based on the repelling force between a permanent magnet and a solenoid. Unlike all (most) known solenoid engines propelled by the movement of the core.

NOTE: This is NOT another 'free energy'-attempt.

Goal is to create a more efficient engine

Many years I enjoyed 3D modelling. This was placed on the back burner partly caused by the long rendering times. Our new 3D printer inspired me again.

Flipping through projects on ‘Thingiverse’ I found the great solenoid V8 engine of 7thCrook (respect man!). Simply printing, copying or modifying his work isn’t my thing. I enjoy the process of designing to much.

Initial idea was prototyping a beautiful engine on the 3D printer. To copy it in aluminium and brass. Finally to scratch-build a 1:5 rc model hotrod around it.

The many solenoid engines on ‘YouTube’ demoralized me. Until I found the Electromagnetic Reciprocating Engine.

My first sketches were based on an upright piston-like movement. ‘Keep it simple stupid!’ I noticed several problems and my designs required many ball-bearings.

Initial experiments showed a pendular movement was the best alternative.

Adjusted goal… Design a concept V8 (P8) engine with the best possible specifications.

CASE Project LOG 02.pdf

Project LOG02 - Fishing for Force

Adobe Portable Document Format - 761.86 kB - 04/11/2017 at 13:45


  • well... reality check,

    case.project.engine04/19/2017 at 19:31 0 comments

    After the first positive results and plans for improvement, a quick calculation of the expected costs.

    The cost for the printed prototype is €70,- ($75) per 2 pendulums. Calculated with the cheapest materials available.

    The final plan to build it in aluminium and brass will quadruple it (with quality materials)... so... [sigh]... one shiny metal 8 pendulum engine, in the current configuration, will cost €1000...

    Thats not the incentive of Hack-a-Day, thats not in reach of my short-term budget...

    The concept works, now a down-sized design is needed...

  • single pendulum

    case.project.engine04/19/2017 at 13:43 0 comments

    PROJECT LOG 3 - running the single pendulum engine

    Creating a design with a few set parameters is a challenge.

    The set parameters are:

    • 3D printable without support
    • A printbed of 200x200mm
    • No glue for construction
    • Modulair
    • Reproducible in wood/aluminium/brass

    The first problems were the limitation and quality of the (our) prints. Boldholes not lining up, walls to thin, to tight fitts.

    After cursing, filing and sanding, my first (single pendulum) prototype was ready to be tested. The alignment, without a printed rig was difficult. Finally I had it all set up. After a couple of tries I had it running at 30V. It was running irregular. After increasing the voltage to 40V it ran perfectly for a few minutes. But before I could record a film it the coil melted my printed spool.

    Well… it ran perfectly. The assumed problem was that I used a camshaft with a 1/16th pulse (for the 8 pendulums). So I needed more current (= temperature) to give a strong enough pulse to have the crankshaft turning smoothly.

    On top of that was the only available copper wire only 39m, which gave me 320 windings (instead of the 600 I wanted)

    Not trusting my assumptions I also designed a heavier spool (had to print a new one anyway). This resulted in even fewer windings. The single pendulum runs noticeably slower and needs even more current to get started.

    The first tests resulted in a number of improvements.

    • getting longer copper wire, so the amount of windings will be around 600
    • changing the spool to a hourglass to facilitate the entering magnets and have a good amount of windings
    • running the dual pendulum with longer pulses (1/8th)

  • Fishing for Force

    case.project.engine04/06/2017 at 10:10 0 comments

    The case-project makes use of the magnetic force of permanent (neodymium) magnets and electromagnetism.

    With this part of the research, I want to determine the “sweet-spot” of the permanent magnets and the solenoid. What is the decrease of the magnetic force in relationship to the distance?

    Stacking magnets increases the force of the magnetic field. What is the influence of stacking the magnets in relation to the weight.

    Testsetup neodymium magnets:

    For this experiment I used two rulers and placed them in a V-shape. I taped a magnet at the head end. In the V-shape was a small metal cylinder (D=14mm).

    For the distance to the magnet I used persplex plates (1,8mm thick).

    From the cylinder I had a string connected to a force meter (CMA CoachLab). The rulers and the cylinder were coated with teflon to reduce most friction.

    Fig 1: Neodymium magnet taped to head end

    Fig 2: persplex plates for distance

    Fig 3: CMA Force Sensor II

    Fig 4: CMA CoachLab

    Fig 5: CMA CoachLab

    I tested with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 magnets on several distances (complete tables in the pdf)

    Graph 1: Average force for 2 magnets (0.0mm exceeded the 50N-capacity)

    The best result was with 2 magnets.

    Graph 2: The percentage of the increase in power for stacked magnets

    Decisions have to be made about the required power. About how much stress the pendulum will have to be able to handle.

    Test-setup solenoid:

    An attempt to measure the force from the solenoid did not work out. After extending the force meter with a PVC rod the device became unstable. Zeroing was impossible.

    Since I already decided on a solenoid (600 windings / 0.6mm) without a core, the theoretical best location is inside the coil.


    case.project.engine04/03/2017 at 08:15 0 comments

    Don’t design a new concept without knowing if the imagined (theoretical) principle works. Testing the concept in a rudimentary way.

    For the first test rig I used two neodymium magnets (D=25mm). Alleged to have a 8kg pulling force.

    I designed a simple wheel and two magnet holders, which could be attached to the wheel in different angles (relative to each other).

    I used two separate power supplies, both connected to one solenoid. The electric current passing through the coil in opposite ways (not at the same time).

    After manually switching on/off the current I used a camshaft, driven by an electric motor. Without a link between the pendulum and camshaft timing was not really possible.

    With only gravity the best result was around 100rpm. I expect much better results when the timing of the camshaft comes directly from the crankshaft.

View all 4 project logs

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Morning.Star wrote 03/30/2017 at 06:56 point

Hi CASE, thanks for the follow, and welcome to #Cardware!

Good luck 2017 :-)

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