I killed one of my VL53L0X sensor modules, so instead of just throwing it away, let's do a teardown and take a look inside for your enjoyment.
Here's the chip with the start of the receiver side removed, you can see an IR filter in there on the left:
Taking more away you notice the left side is fully encapsulated to prevent light leakage from the transmitter (this is the collector side; left) and you start to see the die and the other IR filter on the transmitter side (right):
Here are the IR filters:
Removing both IR filters, you see the laser diode on the right and the rest of the die with the detection array on the left:
And here's the chip removed from the board with all the casing removed:
It looks like there is a secondary detection array near the diode for further timing analysis for ToF.