close-circle
Close
0%
0%

Radiolocation using Pocket Size Transceiver

Let your home automation know which room you're in, your car to know if you're nearby or any other need to detect proximity over a range.

Similar projects worth following
Normally performing Time of Flight measurements requires very quick and/or precise equipment due to the fact that radio waves travel at the speed of light. Sending a single transmission the distance of only a couple feet falls well under the normal microseconds any Arduino based platform can normally measure. However, with numerous measurements, one can find an average that falls under the normal resolution you would expect from a single measurement.

This could be extremely useful for home automation where multiple receiving stations could be used to triangulate a user within a house, allowing the system to determine which zones may be occupied. At the very least it'll be useful for automatically turning on and off the lamp and desk fan at my cubicle.

Overview:

Hardware tests have determined that measuring the average (after applying standard deviation) time-of-flight of approximately 500+ round-trip transmissions can produce reasonably consistent results. While this has not produced results that are accurate down to the foot, it can detect distances within 40 feet reasonably well. However, measurements are in ranges: IE 0-1, 1-4, 4-14, 14-etc. What this means is that we may know we're somewhere between 1 to 4 feet, the next step is somewhere between 4 to 14 and so on. It's not as precise as I wanted, but it is repeatable. At the speeds a 16 mHz Arduino is capable of and a 250 bps transmission rate, this is a measurement at approximately every second.

In this particular case I used a Trinket Pro 3v (12 MHz) to serve as the transponder. Its role with the examples I have provided is to configure the transceiver on the transponder end and keep the receive buffer empty. Ultimately it can be used to turn on and off the transceiver as needed, through detecting motion, to conserve power.

On the base station I used an Arduino Micro as it was readily available. It also benefits from having a 16 bit timer on Timer1 which allows for measurements up to 4 milliseconds long with 62.5 nanosecond accuracy. Ultimately this is important as you need the timer to be as accurate as possible (running at a prescaler of 1 so it cycles at the clock speed of the microcontroller), but still be able to count to a high enough number before the timer counter rolls-over. With a typical 8 bit timer, you would only be able to measure up to 16 microseconds while an average round-trip transmission takes 810 microseconds, in this case.

We can't rely on the normal means to measure time on an Arduino as they can be affected by interrupts running on the microcontroller; this has a negative effect on the consistency of the time measurements. Through the use of the 16 bit timer and being very careful about how interrupts are handled, we can achieve reasonably good measurements.

For the transceiver I used the Nordic nRF24L01+ as it is a reasonably priced transceiver that has a nice feature set. It is a 2.4 GHz transceiver, however, which is not as preferable in this application. A lower frequency transceiver may be able to reach further distances with less interference. Regardless, the main attraction to this transceiver is that it has an auto-acknowledgement function. This allows use to measure round-trip time without the microcontroller on the transponder end needing to take any immediate action. This greatly improves the reliability of the results and makes the job a little easier.


Results:

Data from the demo video.


Program Operation:

The code for the base station largely does this:

  • Configure the transceiver
  • Configure Timer1 to run in normal mode (to use the 16 bit counter) and at a prescaler of 1
  • Send an initial packet of data to load the transmit buffer (TX FIFO)
  • Set the transceiver to disable the auto-retransmit feature so we can get reliable results
  • Set the transceiver to reuse the last transmitted payload so we don't have to write to the TX FIFO again
  • Ping the transponder repeatedly until we achieve the desired number of samples

It then calculates the standard deviation of the raw values and only uses values that fall within the standard deviation to calculate the final average; this gets rid of values with a large margin of error which improves the consistency of the final result. At this point we use the serial connection back to the PC to relay the data so it can be reviewed and used.


Build Details:

For the base station I simply left everything on a breadboard for ease of use. In this case where we're building more of a demonstration and proof of concept, I didn't feel that building an enclosure was necessary.

The transponder is built using a 2xAAA battery case from RadioShack. I found that this was marginally large enough and provided little room for soldering; I recommend a 2xAA case specifically...

Read more »

  • 1 × Trinket Pro 3V Used as the transponder due to small size. Sourced from AdaFruit
  • 2 × Nordic nRF24L01+ 2.4 Ghz Transceiver, well suited for multiple transceivers, but limited range. Sourced from Sparkfun as a breakout board
  • 1 × 150 maH lithium battery Sourced from Adafruit.
  • 1 × Trinket Pro LiIon/LiPoly Backpack Sourced from Adafruit.
  • 1 × Arduino Micro Used as the receiver due to its 16 bit counter and ability to transmit serial over USB to a terminal. Also offers superior timing capabilities over other Arduino platforms.

View all 6 components

  • Featured!

    Eric Herbers01/27/2015 at 05:09 0 comments

    First off, I want to thank Hackaday for featuring my project on the main page! It's a real honor for me, being a long time reader, and I was very pleased with the discussion that took place; it was very constructive.

    As a handful of you picked up on I am not measuring lost packets; any of those results are rejected. I did dabble with packet loss to begin with and determined that was no good way to assign a good time value to a lost packet and handling them amongst the data was going to be troublesome. I've also played with trying to accomplish as many transmissions as possible within a time frame. That too did not work terribly well, I suspect due to limitations with the transmissions still being synced to clock cycles.

    What I've been doing lately, at a very slow pace, is focusing on trying to filter data better before I begin to tackle multi-channel use; something I played with early on, but found requires some pretty extensive error handling in terms of telling the transponder to change a channel and confirming it happened. Often I could successfully make a channel change, but then never receive the auto-acknowledge... it's likely something I'll have to handle manually.

    What I have done is temporarily gotten rid of using standard deviation on the raw values as I found using the true average yielded better results; using standard deviation often reduced the sensitivity to changes in distance. To help smooth things out, but still accomplish a decent refresh rate, I've gone to using a rolling average. So for instance I'm doing a test of 200 pings, and averaging 10 of them. It allows me to see a change in position fairly quickly, but still average out erroneous data. So far this is working very well; especially as I've placed some focus on trying to increase the number of significant digits.

    I'm also just beginning to play with different data rates. Previously I was running at 250 kBps and have recently changed to 2 MBps to see how it works. At first glance it appears to offer more consistent results, but I've also made some changes to the rolling average programming around the same time so some A-B-A testing is necessary. Still, hopes are up!

  • Short update, no content

    Eric Herbers01/15/2015 at 03:24 0 comments

    So what next? Well, right now I'm using my old-as-dirt Tektronix 466 oscilloscope to take a peek at the chip enable signal from the micro controller and the resulting interrupt from the transceiver. Right off the bat I did notice that for every ping I was attempting I was actually send two... oops. Turns out that bringing the chip enable pin low as late as I was triggered the transceiver to transmit again once the interrupt was acknowledged. Bit of a waste of power and resources... and it'd also explain why the delay time between pings was suddenly important when it hadn't been previously. Moving the command to bring the chip enable back low a little earlier in code fixed that problem.

    At this point I'm focusing on when I'm receiving the interrupt and how accurate the micro-controller is at measuring it. In my results I got a lot of erroneous results that were roughly 100-500 cycles later than others; an amount of variance I shouldn't be seeing. Through using the scope I can narrow it down to either the transceiver, micro controller, or potentially interference in the wiring (which I don't see right now). Time will tell!

  • Time for a Break

    Eric Herbers01/03/2015 at 06:33 0 comments

    Whew, what a blur the last few days have been! I've been blessed with headaches and strained eyes, but I'd say this is one of the bigger under-takings I've done.

    The project details have been completed (although the video is still processing) and final data results can be viewed there. Ultimately, after a healthy break, I plan to focus on doing multi-channel measurements and all the error handling that goes with that. Based on one of the white papers, this should help account for signal variances between channels and actually performs a bit of multi-path measurements... apparently 2.4 GHz does some funky things around objects.

    Along with that I hope to get a better grasp on the time-of-flight measurements to further reduce variance and hopefully improve precision, but I fear I'm running into a brick wall with how the interrupt is timed by the transceiver.

    Thanks you all for your interest and I hope you find this useful!

    -Eric J. Herbers

  • Hours to go!

    Eric Herbers01/02/2015 at 18:37 0 comments

    Well, I'm glad I didn't give up... things are improving!

    I'm still using single-channel transmissions and as far as the deadline goes, that will stay. I did begin streaming data to Excel using Parallax's PLX-DAQ macro which greatly sped up my development pace as I could stream raw numbers to excel and apply calculations there; much quicker than constantly flashing new code, performing a short log and reviewing what is essentially a snap-shot of data.

    While I never could get rid of some raw results that strayed far from the area of interest, limiting results to a window and weeding out the ones that fall outside standard deviation produces some fairly nice results, greatly reducing the jitter I've had before. I've also refined the interrupt handling on both ends to reduce (hopefully eliminate) some problems that would cause the transceivers to stop working if the data connection wasn't strong. Now, even in the noisy office, I can stray up to at least 40 feet with no loss of connection, even through a wall and buried in a library of books.

    I also took some time to wrap up the hardware and managed to squeeze everything into a 2xAAA battery case... I recommend 2xAA next time. Due to the tight spaces, I ended up wire wrapping the two boards together. All in all it fits into a nice little package and doesn't seem to hurt reception too badly; although code was the biggest problem in that regard.

    I've also added a small vibration switch that will ultimately be used to trigger the transponder to send a start message once motion is detected; the aim being to conserve power when at rest. With this case I can manage to fit a 150 mAh battery which provides at least a few hours of battery life; hopefully more once I try to integrate a power saving mode. However, that won't be complete in time for the deadline.

  • Short update

    Eric Herbers01/01/2015 at 21:28 0 comments

    There's hope! Lots of refinement to do, but as far as having a working concept by the deadline... there's hope.

    So what have I done? Well largely try several dozen different ways of attempting the same thing and tweaking the software to improve timing and reduce standard deviation of the results. In the end I toyed with timing a single transmission and attempting as many as possible within a set window; both single channel and multi-channel. After reading both the white papers I have linked, I decided to focus more on timing singular transmissions as both papers indicated that averaging the results was their end means.

    Sure enough, sending 1000+ transmissions produces some interesting histograms that do show a trend. While I haven't been able to prevent outlier data, I have decided to at least limit the used results to a specific range which has improve the averaging results greatly. The downside is that due to the number of rejections, trying to get 1000 good samples can take up to 10 seconds... that needs improvement.

    Regardless, here's a handy graph! After taking 5 or so samples, I would move the transponder further away from the receiver. Measurements were taken at <1 foot, 3 feet, 8 feet, 12 feet, and somewhere around 15-16 feet, around a corner and down the hall before returning to 0. All but the furthest were taken line-of-sight and the results show that the further away you get, the more deviation is seen in the results. The results are also very non-linear below 3 feet.

  • Still Alive

    Eric Herbers12/30/2014 at 16:23 0 comments

    No, I'm not dead yet! December has just been a busy month thanks to my marriage and the holidays. Needless to say, I haven't been able to do much work on this until the last 5 days or so.

    That said, I've got hardware together and after many many hours of banging my head against a wall, I've finally got the transceivers talking to each other. Let's just say you should take great care when copying register writing commands to make sure the register location was changed... I have a feeling I blew a good 6 hours thanks to that. Let's just say it's a good thing I'm not a professional.

    Despite that hurdle, I've managed to rough out some programs and have come away with some interesting results. Largely what I'm doing is sending as many transmissions as I can in a controlled period and logging how many were successful. As it turns out, to make use of Nordic's handy auto-acknowledge feature the receiving end does need to read the receiving FIFO before the auto-acknowledge packet is returned; so both ends of the link need to take an active part.

    Using this method does yield fairly reliable results, but the trouble is that when operating on a single channel the results don't change much when distance is increased. I believe this has a lot to do with what I've discussed previously where the transit time is swallowed up by the relatively slow clock time of both ends.

    The interesting bit is that performing the same test over multiple channels, as discussed in some of the white papers I have linked, is reasonably successful and can produce fairly good results. The trouble is that what I'm largely doing is in essence a site-survey and rather than accumulating the time it takes a signal to transit from one end to the other, I'm actually measuring the packet success rate.

    This is fairly obvious when I test the setup at home and get a higher number of packets transmitted versus when I try it at work where there are more sources of interference. At home I can get nearly 100% success rate up to ten feet away (making any measurements useless under that distance) while at work I'm lucky to manage 100% at one foot.

    Still, with some processing of the data I can get fairly consistent results, but any calibration certainly has to be done on-site and couldn't be relied upon elsewhere. Long story short, the results are a bit disappointing. I intend on continuing to refine this a little further, but the end result doesn't work remotely how I had intended and may prove to be too unreliable.

    Hardware cobbled together for testing. Ultimately I intend on fitting the transponder into a AAA battery case and direct soldering the antenna to reduce the footprint.

    The same test performed at a different time of day. You can see there is a trend, but it has a large spread.

    The same basic test again, but this time performing some logic against the result to weed out results that stray too far from the average, then re-averaging the results. In this case I did reduce the period for pinging which reduced the precision, but also greatly reduce the time it takes to perform the test. There's obviously a fine balance between the two.

  • Grim Outlook

    Eric Herbers12/08/2014 at 19:31 2 comments

    I've finally got my components, but between trying to sort out the logic for the software and getting ready for my wedding next weekend (I swear to god if someone says the word "excited" again I'm going to snap) I haven't gotten around to wiring anything together or trying more code.

    So far I've been simulating the rough logic in Excel and coming to the conclusion that this is going to be a bit more work than I imagined. Once you begin considering that any action taking place outside the microcontroller still has to wait for a clock cycle, many of the proposed ideas for how this could work likely won't.

    It's two the point where I either need to start slinging code just to verify something isn't going to work (as opposed to dismissing it) or come up with some other, more hack-worthy, solutions.

    One of those solutions is to change the clock speed of one of the microcontrollers. You see, right now everything divides well into 1 (16 Mhz has a clock tick of 62.5 ns, 12 mhz is 83.333~). If I could fudge one to say, 15.8 mhz I could rely on an interesting phenomenon to make this work.

    I won't go into the gory details because any attempt to explain them so far have turned into a mess, but by having the transponder operate at a slightly different frequency than the receiver, we can essentially make a vernier scale that can be used to measure time in a very precise manner.

    The challenge is that this is only possible by either replacing the crystal with something very non-standard, or relying on the internal oscillator and changing the OSCCAL (Oscillator Calibration) value to shift the frequency. The question is whether the internal oscillator can be stable enough to use and how to apply a calibration procedure intermittently to it to account for temperature changes.

  • New challenges and I don't even have hardware...

    Eric Herbers12/03/2014 at 04:57 0 comments

    Triggering PSRSYNC under the GTCCR register did the trick for resetting the prescaler and getting consistent timing results. Unfortunately while researching that this morning, another thought plopped in my head that could be a potential deal-breaker.

    The entire concept was to have the transponder send a signal and the receiver to bounce one back, incurring a delay due to the distance between the two. The problem is that you're still relying on the system clock to get around to acknowledging a signal has been received and responding back. Any delay between the data received interrupt being triggered and the microcontroller registering it completely nullifies your ability to accumulate that delay.

    To give an analogy, it's like giving your friend a call, but they can only answer the phone at ten minute intervals (IE 5:30, 5:40, 5:50). As far as they know, they received the message at 5:50, but you could have sent it at 5:46... Just like the transponder, it can send the message at anytime, but the receiver still has to wait anywhere from 0-62 ns before it can acknowledge it and send another back. You can repeat your call at 5:59, but it's still 6:00 before it gets picked up. No matter how many times you repeat, what delay you created gets reset to a standard interval by the receiving end.

    I think what I may have to do is change to sending messages of different lengths and increasing the length until I roll over to the next count of the timer. This way I can attempt to line up the interrupt triggering the moment it can be registered. At that point a combination of the message length and the time-of-flight can be used to calculate distance.

    In other news, I'm beginning to like the Leonardo/Micro platform. With the 32u4 chip, there is a high speed timer that can be clocked off the PLL clock... at 64 mhz. Pretty handy as it gets resolution down to 15 ns, but I likely won't use it. Ultimately I want to develop a solution that works on any Arduino platform and doesn't cater to the strengths of just one.

  • Interrupts Can Really Suck

    Eric Herbers12/01/2014 at 18:52 0 comments

    The holiday weekend was full of moments of success and frustration. I refined the program to produce accurate numbers and began testing how consistent the new timer was, only to find it wasn't at all. Concerning the interrupt used to count how many times the overflow has occurred, there were zero problems. However, trying to get a consistent number from the counter proved to be troublesome.

    It's obvious in hindsight, but when you're trying to count per the tick of the CPU clock, any other interrupts that are running can really screw with your results. Typically I was able to pull reasonable numbers on the microsecond scale of slightly better resolution than micros(), but variance at the nanosecond level was completely unacceptable. It was bad enough that using the micros() function actually produced marginally lower standard deviation... ouch.

    Ultimately, disabling global interrupts would produce dead steady numbers from the Timer 1 counter. While I can work without interrupts, that also means the overflow interrupt is no longer enabled and I would have to "manually" watch the counter overflow. Sounded like a big waste of resources to me.

    So ultimately I have two options to sort through now:

    Option A: Pinpoint the offending interrupt(s) and disable it(them) temporarily while still allowing global interrupts.

    OR

    Option B: Use a combination of Timer 1 and Timer 2 to count nanoseconds without the use of an interrupt. It dawned on me late last night that I can configure Timer 1 at a prescaler of 256 and be able to count up to a full second before it overflows at a resolution of 16 us. I can then set Timer 2 at a prescaler of 1 and be able to count from 62.5 ns up to 16 us before it overflows. Between the two of them I can get accurate timing up to a full second at a resolution of 62.5 ns without the use of interrupts.

    I'd still be disabling global interrupts, but based on the communication requirements of the Nordic transmitters, I don't believe that would make too large of a hurdle.

    Edit: The Trinket Pro and transceivers are now ordered. Hopefully next week I'll be able to get some hardware brought together. I've also attached screenshots illustrating the effect interrupts have. Both are using the Option B timer scheme which still has some odd variance in the low resolution counter.

    Edit 12-2-2014: After reviewing the datasheet for the Atmega32u, it clearly points out that it may be necessary to sync the prescaler with the code... that'd explain the intermittent timing error of the low resolution counter that I was seeing. Using the GTCCR register, I can clear the prescaler at the start of my timing event to sync it up. Otherwise the prescaler may trigger right at the start of the timing event, or a while later leading to the inconsistent behavior.

    The only downside is that syncing the prescaler affects all three timers tied to it so it would introduce errant behavior into the millis()/micros() functions, but as long as I'm aware of that when writing the program, it shouldn't be a problem.

  • Testing the Waters

    Eric Herbers11/29/2014 at 04:55 0 comments

    So far so good. Screwing around on the Arduino Micro I currently have, I successfully tested a nano-second timer which should be accurate down to about 63 ns. I'm relying on Timer1 in fast PWM mode to run at a pre-scaler of 1; causing each tick to increment with every clock cycle. At 16 mhz that's 62.5 ns. The only downside is that as-written it's limited to counting 4.2 seconds, but that should work fine for this application. Now I just need to work on making it compatible with the odd-ball 12 mhz platforms; otherwise 8 and 16 mhz results in nice round numbers and no chance to accumulate error.

    This is borrowing heavily from the code already used for the micro-second timer, only a little simpler and designed to reset the counter at every call of the sub-routine due to the nature of how it's being used and how short it can time for.

View all 10 project logs

Enjoy this project?

Share

Discussions

Yong wrote 07/05/2017 at 02:20 point

Hi Eric, I was looking into your project, and trying to rebuild this using Arduino UNO, but it didn't work. So I was wondering, were the codes only applicable to Trinket PRO and Micro? If I were to use UNO, can you suggest the changes that I need to make?

  Are you sure? yes | no

nzkits wrote 03/01/2017 at 01:01 point

Hi Eric, Nice job. Can measuring destination between two nrf24l01 less or about 1s time (about real-time)? How close can? 1mm to 10meter?  I know maybe by ultrasound is easier but I cannot use for the project that I am thing. Cheers

  Are you sure? yes | no

Tommaso D'Amico wrote 11/12/2016 at 20:43 point

Hey Eric, I'm trying to reproduce your project with some Arduino uno's and I'm having some problems with PORTF, looking it up online it doesn't appear, from my understanding it should be using PORTB for pin 13 to work as an interrupt pin, but its not really running for me so I might be wrong about it, why did you use PORTF for it and how do you set that up?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 11/12/2016 at 21:28 point

Tom, I used an Arduino Micro for the base which is a different series of Atmega than the Uno so the ports aren't all the same. I don't recommend using an Uno as any timer you can use doesn't have as high of resolution as what the Micro offers (16 bits).

  Are you sure? yes | no

burner wrote 03/20/2015 at 23:23 point

How many measurements per second you can do? If I understand right there is two problem at accuracy. One is just time measuring resolution and one is some variance at data processing?

To that timer resolution problem you maybe can use that trick that if you can add some random variation to delay that way you possible can get more accurate average. Good article for that is there http://hackaday.com/2015/01/25/when-adding-noise-helps/  I dont know howto add  variation for it but I will let it to you :)

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 03/23/2015 at 17:42 point

It can achieve a little over 1000 samples per second pretty easily; on a single channel. That said, I do get what appears to be marginally better results if I induce a little delay and reduce it to about 200 samples per second.

You are right that timer resolution is a big problem, but it's really only about 30%. Another 30% is caused by the relatively low clock rate of the transceiver, which limits how reliably it can trigger the interrupt in terms of when the signal was actually received. The final 40% is multi-path propagation of the signal which necessitates that the test be conducted across multiple channels; especially in an indoor and "noisy" environment. (By the way, those numbers are just rough approximations, not based on any concrete evidence)

I did catch that article about noise, but it largely had to do with injecting noise on the input side rather than post-processing. Since I'm dealing with an interrupt signal, it's difficult to add any variance to it like you can with analog signals. That said, between the small difference in clock rate of the microcontroller, transceiver and other factors; there is ample noise. :)

  Are you sure? yes | no

Chris Crochet wrote 01/30/2015 at 23:55 point

Hey again Eric, signed up here to continue following your progress. Glad to see updates and hope to see more! I may have an explanation and fix for your difficulty in changing channels. If you change channel by writing to the radio's channel register alone, it seems to work *only* if the difference in frequency is relatively small, +/-100Mhz or so. Larger changes seem to render the radio incapable of receiving, probably due to PLL lock failure, until next time the radio is temporarily disabled. And being incapable of RX, if the device doesn't *self-initiate* a transmit or do something else that temporarily disables the radio, the radio will remain forever stuck in this invalid state. This certainly sounds like it may apply to your "ping" recipient, as it never switches mode under control of the MCU; all mode changes are caused by receipt of a packet, and if can receive nothing, no ACK is ever sent. I found nothing in the datasheet that describes or warns of this behavior. But was able to easily solve it by lowering CE prior to writing the channel register, then raising it afterwards. This invokes the 130us PLL settling time, PLL locks properly, and problem solved. Hope this helps.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 02/03/2015 at 03:58 point

Hey Chris, glad to have you!

Changing channels was actually fairly successful, even with the transceiver still active. What I suspect I was seeing is the transceiver receiving the packet and changing the channel accordingly, but the auto-acknowledge failing. Up until I decided to temporarily abandon multi-channel, I was only assuming that the channel never changed and then going back to the previous channel for another attempt. Ultimately the code was getting ugly due to me trying to rush it so I just shelved it.

Ultimately I need to first assume the channel was successful and send a test packet to reconfirm, then attempt stepping back. That said, I was only changing the channel a few MHz at a time. Time will tell of course, but I'll certainly keep your thoughts in mind!

  Are you sure? yes | no

VitoMakes wrote 01/25/2015 at 00:20 point

Hi Eric! Good job. I have been working on the same application with the nrf24l01+... I have the double peak issue as well. If you go further with the resolution, that is, use a microcontroller that uses the same 16Mhz clock than the nrf24l01+, you'll see that you'll always receive two "groups" of interrupts at some hundred of clock cycles of difference, as you experienced. If you see more than that, it's probably because of some packets bouncing in the room and travelling through a longer path. It's an artifact of the chip itself. The inner firmware must have a polling algorithm that will trigger IRQ sometimes sooner, sometimes later... The delta also depends on the bitrate you selected.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 01/25/2015 at 03:58 point

I do think multipath explains a lot of what variance is seen; especially as you can instigate a change by blocking the line of sight path. I also happen to see this in my room where I can get a longer distance reading across the room than if the transponder is another 4-6 feet away, in the hallway. Both white papers I linked point out that operating on multiple channels can help average this out. I've played with this a little bit, but ultimately decided to go back and focus on improving single channel operation first.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Chris Crochet wrote 01/31/2015 at 00:24 point

Some untested thoughts regarding this: 1) If both a direct and multipath transmission is received, and the radio can randomly select between reception of either, perhaps you could make it favor the direct by reducing TX power to the point where reception of the multipath signal is no longer viable. Start at the lowest power, if no or too few ACKs received in X attempts, increase power one setting and repeat. 2) If a polling algorithm exists on the radio such that reception falls into a poll timeslot, perhaps transmitting packets of random length would assist in dithering this out; you'd still get double peaks, but the averaged distribution might be a better representation of true distance.

  Are you sure? yes | no

VitoMakes wrote 01/31/2015 at 17:52 point

for 1), sometimes indirect paths are stronger than direct paths, due to constructive interference. The best way to find the (most) direct path is taking the lower delay. But sometimes you can only detect the reflected path... 2) can be a good idea, but you have to be sure that the dithering is a "smart" one and it doesn't introduce more artifacts. In the tests that I have done, the two peaks have almost 50% probability, so just average everything and calibrate your 0-distance consequently.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 02/03/2015 at 04:02 point

Agreed, I've noticed the 50/50 split as well. That said, while operating at 1 Mbps it did seem that three peaks were formed.

I have tried averaging everything, but it doesn't seem to produce as clean of results as applying an offset to the second peak.

  Are you sure? yes | no

VitoMakes wrote 02/03/2015 at 08:47 point

The two peaks come always at a multiple of the bitrate (if I remember well they are at 2*bittime). However, if there are reflected paths, you may get three, or even more of them. As well, you may get only one (if the second one is too weak I guess?). But if the path is clean, the peaks are two. In real life though, it will never be clear...

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 02/03/2015 at 14:34 point

Hmm, maybe so. At 250 kbps my peaks were 120 cycles apart which should be 7.5 us, but that would be a multiple of some factor of 3. I think I'll have to make it my goal this weekend to post up graphs of the behavior at the different bit-rates so some comparisons can be made.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 02/03/2015 at 04:00 point

The interesting bit was that playing with the 2 Mbps setting yielded only a single hump and some pretty damn consistent results, but range suffered tremendously. I'm not sure if this is an effect of the high data rate operating across two channels or some other factor, but it caught my eye.

I have pondered trying to vary packet length and it very well may have merit. In the meantime I've been focusing on how to combine the multiple peaks together to form one.

  Are you sure? yes | no

wheedal wrote 01/24/2015 at 18:34 point

Very cool! Was looking at the averaging as you moved your body into the signal path --could be a fairly decent resolution detection grid if you used multiple devices with known locations and a good base line. Might be more user friendly as you wouldn't need to carry a device on your person.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 01/25/2015 at 04:00 point

That is an interesting idea. I've noticed that as well, typically placing the transponder on my body or keeping it in a close fist can increase the time measurements noticeably. I wonder how that would behave with four base stations in the corners of a room. That said, something as simple as changing the height of the base station also changes the behavior.

  Are you sure? yes | no

himitsu73 wrote 01/17/2015 at 02:36 point

Stumbled on this by accident, joined so I could say how awesome this is! It would be a great addition to my home automation system. Knowing what room a user is in opens up so many possibilities.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 01/17/2015 at 04:09 point

That was my thought as well! I had started to consider dabbling with home automation, but ultimately stalled out when I realized that there were few good DIY ways to detect whether someone was in a room or not. So things like lighting only the rooms necessary kind of goes out the window and you have little flexibility for changed schedules. I really hope to improve the resolution a bit more, but adding base stations would improve things on their own.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Adam Fabio wrote 01/13/2015 at 06:59 point

Hey Maxzillian, congrats on an awesome project! I'm sorry you didn't make the top 3, but wanted you to know that you were definitely up there on the list! Look for a feature article on the main site in the next few days covering your project.

I hope you continue working on Radiolocation - I'd like to see it working with multiple base stations. Would multipath become an issue? It would be pretty darn cool to have a system which knew what room you were in - for things like turning on lights, and having music "follow" you through a house.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 01/13/2015 at 15:34 point

Thanks! I'm definitely not disappointed in my loss, competition was steep!

I do intend on trying to develop this project further and may see about working on it some more this month since it's too cold to tackle my normal projects. Ultimately I do want to do multiple base stations, but haven't began to sit down and think about the program logic needed for passing off from one station to another and how to keep multiple stations from trying to make contact at once; the easiest method would be to have the transponder initiate the test targeted at a specific station.

The trick is figuring out how it would obtain that information. I could always designate a master station, but if the transponder can't make contact with it there needs to be a way to reach out to one of the slaves to get the information needed. Thankfully the Nordic transceivers do allow you to not only designate a specific channel, but also designate a receiver address to send to.

I'm also interested in trying to get the base stations to auto-calibrate. Since they too could determine distance from one another I've been pondering if they could automatically map out their location relative to each other so that information doesn't have to be entered manually.

However, I need to do some more testing with my 70s era oscilloscope to drill into why my time measurements aren't matching what I saw on the scope (delayed by roughly 1000 clock cycles) and why it's not consistent. With that fixed I would get much better results.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 01/13/2015 at 15:44 point

Concerning multipath, I do believe that exists with this setup (and may explain some of the timing variance). One of the white papers I've linked does discuss this effect and suggests that it can be quenched by doing multi-channel tests; suggesting that different channels can have different paths.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Adam Fabio wrote 11/30/2014 at 07:31 point
Interesting project! The nice thing about the arduino platform is that you can prototype with an Uno, or a micro before committing to soldering up your trinket.
As far as timing accuracy goes, you don't *HAVE* to use the Arduino firmware and libraries. If you can get better resolution writing in native AVR C, or even assembler, go for it! (I'd take a look at what you can do with a the hardware counter/timers)

  Are you sure? yes | no

Eric Herbers wrote 11/30/2014 at 12:16 point
Thanks! I think it at least has the potential to be useable to a fairly wide range of people although I'm a little disappointed at the simplicity of the hardware side... just seems to be the opposite of what I've done in the past (more complex hardware, simpler software). It is nice that I can test the concept on other boards, although I'm all too familiar with solder wick. :)

I'm a little gun shy of C, but only because it's been a long time since I've used it; although I'm aware how similar Wiring is. As of right now I've set an interrupt to trigger whenever the counter on Timer 1 overflows and keep track of how many times this has occurred by incrementing a variable. Ultimately I decided to use Timer 1 since it is a 10 bit timer (in Fast PWM mode) and takes longer to roll over than the other ones available which would reduce how often the interrupt gets called. At 16 mhz and a prescaler of 1 that gets down to a resolution of 64000 ns. However, once I make the call to the subroutine to calculate elasped time I'm not only taking into consideration how many times the counter has overflowed, but also taking a look at the current count at that moment to drill the resolution down to 62.5 ns; which is the tick speed of the counter (prescaler is set to 1 so that'd be 16 mhz).

Would writing it in C improve on that any?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Similar Projects

Does this project spark your interest?

Become a member to follow this project and never miss any updates