Update 5/19/2019: I am looking at this page for the first time in several years. I would like to continue working on this project, although at present I have no concrete plans to do so. I would also like to acknowledge that back when people were commenting, I was kind of a dick. I believe in open information, honesty, and clear historical record, so I will leave those comments up. Just wanted to acknowledge it in hopes it doesn't reflect too poorly on my professionalism today.
I think the first path to explore will be to use a laser projector and a frosted globe. This has the benefit of not needing any extensive image processing, which is good because I understand zero things about image processing. However, it does require a laser projector. From what I understand, these are pretty pricey, so if anyone can point to me a better solution, I'm open to suggestions.
Currently poking about to find a good material to use for a frosted globe. Will update when I have some results.