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New Paradigm SuperElectrolyticCapacitor

A new type of electrolytic capacitor is made using a super dielectric material composed of incipient wetness diatomaceous earth.

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Using the single greatest resource on the face of the planet, that coincidentally provides most of the oxygen we use and breathe, I will attempt to create create the highest energy density know to man.

Based on the work of Samuel Fromille and Jonathan Phillips at the Naval Postgraduate School who laid the groundwork for a new paradigm supercapacitor using a super-dieletric as the energy storage medium.

My absolute fascination and desire to put diatoms or diatomaceous earth inside everything I create has finally paid off. Diatoms have the advantage of an incredibly porous refractory silicate structure varying in dimension and shape, this allows new paradigm supercapacitors to have a permittivity close to vacuum or a value of 1.

-Cover image to the left
"Diatomeas-Haeckel". Licensed under Public Domain via Commons -

irstly you need to catch up by reading these papers. This is in theory the most energy dense storage device. All it is, a conventional electrolytic capacitor using a super dielectric. I have had major issues getting the layers thin enough and will probably need to airbrush them and use copper flake as the current collectors.

Generation Zero Al2O3 Boric Acid

http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1403/1403.6862.pdf

Generation One Al2O3 NaCl

http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1404/1404.7537.pdf

Future supercapacitor plants would actually grow specific diatoms to make higher capacity devices and at the same time release oxygen into the atmosphere, they will essentially have a negative carbon footprint.

Voltage should be around 1.8 with over 2000 amp hours per gram and an energy density of at least 2,500 Wh/liter.

I am not sure if graphene will help, it should on the anode providing a higher surface area to store electrons, however it remains to be tested and seen.

Early results show small charge storage on par with the gen 0 and gen 1 tests in the papers above. Massive potential is below .3v, however, making this dubious at best. Using an electrolyte with a much higher breakdown voltage than water should help alleviate the low voltage problems. However all attempts up to this point have been met with failure so a series configuration will be attempted next.

The next build will look like this with each layer sprayed as thin as possible, if this is a legitimate super-dielectric then each layer of graphene oxide should add .3 volts of capacity when constructed in series as such.

Diatom in pictures CC 2.0 Jovita Yesilyurt

This documentation describes Open Hardware and is licensed under the CERN OHL v. 1.2. You may redistribute and modify this documentation under the terms of the CERN OHL v.1.2. (http://ohwr.org/cernohl). This documentation is distributed WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, INCLUDING OF MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Please see the CERN OHL v.1.2 for applicable conditions

  • 1 × Food Grade Freshwater Diatomaceous Earth Will compare ball milled vs non
  • 1 × NaCl with potassium iodide
  • 1 × Carbon Fiber Veil Cloth
  • 1 × Graphene prepared by mechanical efoliation
  • 1 × Graphene Oxide prepared by hummer's method

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  • Limited Sucess, new materials to try

    MECHANICUS03/22/2016 at 00:02 0 comments

    I am going to be coating the anode and cathode with graphene in order to increase the surface area and electrons that can be stored electrolytically.

    In the same vein I will be experimenting with copper sulfate in the dielectric, for what reason I don't know but I had a dream about a bright blue electrolyte/superdielectric and copper sulfate is bright blue.

    The advantage of these over EDLC capacitors are a much higher power density or almost instantaneous discharge.

    This will be primarily entered into the citizen scientist portion of the 2016 HAD prize.

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Mike wrote 04/26/2019 at 01:28 point

Would you happen to have any updates?

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Leonardo Janus wrote 01/07/2016 at 23:45 point

But need small molecules for paradigm supercaps, like 2-pyrrolidone.

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MECHANICUS wrote 01/08/2016 at 05:57 point

It doesn't really matter the pores are large enough anything will fit, its just a matter of experimental testing. I really am only using things that will work with a lithium/silicon anode and transition metal colloid cathode.

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Leonardo Janus wrote 01/07/2016 at 23:44 point

Do you know glycerol+potassium carbonate deep eutectic solvent?

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MECHANICUS wrote 01/08/2016 at 00:21 point

No I was not aware of that, i'll probably give some sodium carbonate a shot. Thanks... right now I am trying to integrate something else using lithium.  Lithium is simply the best by mass. I don't buy into the idea that it is scarce either.

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Leonardo Janus wrote 12/24/2015 at 09:51 point

Try using eutectic mixtures with wider electrochemical window than water.

Do you also consider bipolar electrodes? A stack of disks inside polymeric tube.

Very high voltages.

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MECHANICUS wrote 01/06/2016 at 17:55 point

Yes I am working on PVA PEG or Glycerol electrolyte.

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DeepSOIC wrote 12/17/2015 at 15:00 point

wtf...

"Graphene super-capacitors with theoretical surface area of 2700 meters squared"

-area per gram, maybe?

"energy density of around 5500 farads per gram"

- This is not energy density. This is capacitance density. Energy density is measured in Joules per liter, or watt-hour per liter.. Okay, per gram is kind of sort of density too. If we knew the max voltage, it would be possible to calculate energy density...

"Diatoms have the advantage of an incredibly porous refractory silicate structure varying in dimension and shape, this allows new paradigm supercapacitors to have a huge dieletric constant greater than 10 the 10th power across all voltages." Didn't get it. I see no relationship between porosity and dielectric const. Porous substance is supposed to be filled with something (e.g., air), so the dielectric const will be close to the substance it is filled with (if air -> dielectric const close to 1.0)

Otherise, smells like BS. Cool pic, btw.

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MECHANICUS wrote 12/17/2015 at 21:16 point

Read the last sentence (I haven't finished that section yet), then read the sources on the left.  Then when you understand the subject come back and comment again.

I can't fit more in that section on dielectric constant, and yes this is almost equal to vacuum, there is around 2 molar NaCl/H2O in the pores of the alumina in the studys provided in the links section.  This is what produces the dielectric the ions in the pores of Al2O3.

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DeepSOIC wrote 12/17/2015 at 21:46 point

Ok, sorry =)

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MECHANICUS wrote 12/20/2015 at 03:27 point

Thanks for the comment anyway I edited that to say the permittivity is close to 1. It is simpler and easier to understand. 

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