OUTPOST is powered by a rechargeable lithium polymer (LiPo) battery sized to last several days on a full charge. A small solar panel and charge controller provide energy for continuous recharging during available sunlight.

Motion Sensor
Each OUTPOST has a low-power PIR (passive infrared) sensor to detect intrusions within a zone area. PIR sensors work by monitoring changes in temperature from the surroundings to detect movement. The PIR sensors have a wide angle of view with a detection range up to 12 meters.

Radio Sniffing Sensor
Modern smartphones and peripherals include radio transceivers for WiFi and Bluetooth support. These signals are transmitted with less power than a mobile network signal and can normally be received only within a relatively short range. The MAC address assigned to these devices can be observed in wireless signals even if the device is not actively connected to a particular wireless network, or even if it is not actively transmitting data. 

When WiFi or Bluetooth is turned on in a typical smartphone or peripheral, the device will transmit periodic signals that include the MAC address. These signals can be picked up by nearby receivers ("sniffed") through discovery to recognize that the device is present. This has been used for commercial tracking applications, for example to let shopkeepers obtain statistics about how often particular customers visit and how long they spend in the shop. 

A similar technique is implemented in each OUTPOST to detect the presence of intruders that may have a smart device on their person. The range of detection can be controlled to some extent by factoring in received signal strength levels, such as RX power or RSSI, and to determine the proximity of the intrusion to the OUTPOST. These signals can be detected at greater ranges than the  PIR motion sensors, providing a layer of "early detection" capability to augment alerts from the motion sensors, helping to confirm human presence rather than wildlife or other potential false indications. Known "friendly" MAC addresses can be identified in advance and filtered to minimize false alarms.

More recently, some smart device manufacturers have added features to address privacy concerns raised as a result of commercial tracking practices, one technique being MAC address randomization. However, this should not limit OUTPOST's capability as we're interested only in the detection of any nearby MAC address, not a specific MAC address.

Vibration Sensor
Each OUTPOST includes an accelerometer for sensing movement and vibration. This can be useful for detecting movements of gates and fences that may not be in the field of view of the PIR motion sensor. It can also be used to detect and report possible tampering of the OUTPOST units themselves.

Each OUTPOST uses a long range nRF24L01+ 2.4GHz ISM band transceiver through an SMA antenna to communicate heartbeat, status and intrusion alarm events to BASE. Line-of-sight comm range is up to 1000 meters. Small radio packets are sent in short bursts periodically or on event basis only to reduce power requirements, maximizing battery life. OUTPOST can also receive settings data from BASE to configure channel assignments, detection ranges, MAC address filtering and scan parameters.


OUTPOST Primary Components
Panasonic EKMB1103112 PIR Sensor
NXP MMA8452QR1 3-Axis Accelerometer
nRF24L01+ 2.4GHz ISM band transceiver / SMA Antenna
18650 3.7V 2800mAH LiPo Battery
TI TP4056 LiPo Charge Controller
PowerFilm MP4.8-150 Solar Panel
Weatherproof Enclosure

BASE handles all communications with one or more OUTPOST units using an nRF24L01+ 2.4GHz ISM band transceiver through an SMA antenna. BASE uses a PSoC 62 MCU to drive a small display and audible annunciator for centralized stand-alone, real time alarm notification. It collects all intrusion alarm events and displays these to announce the type and location of the involved OUTPOST unit(s). A CapSense touch-sensitive interface is employed for user interaction (alarm acknowledgement, setting selection, etc). BASE is intended for indoor use with internet access and is powered by a 4.5VDC power adapter.

BASE also acts as a gateway to forward alarm events using a WiFi connection to Amazon Web Services (AWS).


BASE Primary Components
nRF24L01+ 2.4GHz ISM band transceiver / SMA Antenna
2.4" TFT Display
CapSense Touch Interface
Audio Annunciator
DC Power Jack / 4.5v Power Adapter

(NOTE: A future implementation might consist of a BASE app for Android / iOS mobile devices to either replace or augment the BASE implementation described here)

Amazon Web Services (AWS)
Using the WiFi interface, BASE forwards all alarms to the AWS "cloud" for event logging. Dashboards are created using AWS QuickSight for log event visualization and reports. AWS SNS is used to push notifications to mobile device endpoints to alert field personnel of alarm events.

I work a few days each month as a Ranger at a 350 acre private nature preserve. The preserve has several lakes for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, and paddle boards, and over 5 miles of hiking and biking trails. The preserve has a single entrance/exit with an RFID card scanner to allow member vehicle access. Trespassing by non-members is a constant problem as there are several known locations around the preserve that are often used for covert access by foot. Trespassers frequently enter at these locations during and after hours for fishing and boating.

PERISCOPE was conceived as an aid to provide additional 24 hour security to detect intrusions, identify often used points of access, alert Rangers on and off duty, and provide reporting to administration.

Which Cypress PSoC® 6 Dev Kit would you like to use for the project and why?
The PSoC® 6 WiFi-BT Pioneer Kit (CY8CKIT-062-WIFI-BT) is ideally suited for both OUTPOST and BASE development. Two kits would allow concurrent development and testing of both OUTPOST and BASE units operating together.

ICSP/SPI interface; nRF24L01+ 2.4GHz ISM band transceiver 
GPIO digital and analog blocks; PIR motion sensor
Type 1DX ultra-small 2.4-GHz WLAN; radio sniffing sensor
3-axis acceleration and 3-axis gyroscopic motion sensor; vibration sensor
USB Type-C power delivery (PD) system; rechargeable LiPo battery power system

ICSP/SPI interface; nRF24L01+ 2.4GHz ISM band transceiver 
Type 1DX ultra-small 2.4-GHz WLAN; WiFi interface
CY8CKIT-028-TFT; display user interface
CapSense Slider & Buttons; touch user interface

ModusToolbox + PSoC Creator + WICED Studio

What is your experience level with embedded IoT design? 
26 year engineering career in industrial automation developing human machine interface (HMI), control and motion products. 6 years developing operator console and mobile apps for radio / telephone dispatch systems. 3 years self-employed, design and development of embedded hardware & software solutions. Currently self-employed developing and marketing dry fire firearm training and safety product "Shooter Make Ready" (acceleratedfirearmtraining.com) consisting of electronc BLE-enabled targets and laser training pistol using Cypress PSoC 4 MCU / BLE with apps for Android/iOS devices. 3 patents as primary inventor.

Only 8 weeks for the "Build" Phase 2 of the Change the Planet with PSoC® IoT Design project? A proper changing of the planet might require another 4 weeks.