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Airfoil Design with OpenSCAD

A project log for Variable Pitch Small-Scale Wind Turbine

Developing a 3D Printed Variable Pitch Wind Turbine

william.rigbywilliam.rigby 04/30/2022 at 02:410 Comments
hull(){
    for(z = [0:10:1000]){
        translate([0,0,z]){
            rotate([0,0,45*z/1000]){
                linear_extrude(0.1){
                
                    scale([thicknessArray[z],thicknessArray[z]]){
                        projection(cut = true){
                            translate([0,0,-z]){
                                hull(){
                                    //base();
                                    translate([0,0,0]){
                                        nrel_s835();
                                    };
                                    translate([0,0,300]){
                                        nrel_s835();
                                    };
                                    translate([0,0,750]){
                                        nrel_s833();
                                    }
                                    translate([0,0,950]){
                                        nrel_s834();
                                    }
                                    translate([0,0,1000]){
                                        nrel_s834();
                                    }
                                }
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}


                        

module base(){
    linear_extrude(0.1){
        scale([1/800, 1/800]){
            circle(400);
        }
    }
}

module nrel_s835(){
        linear_extrude(0.1){          
                    translate([-0.305,0]){
                        polygon(points=[[1.000000, 0.000000], [0.995932, 0.000974], [0.984473, 0.004552], [0.967194, 0.010971], [0.945459, 0.019503], [0.919943, 0.029016], [0.890618, 0.038526], [0.857149, 0.047861], [0.819938, 0.057178], [0.779531, 0.066312], [0.736444, 0.075033], [0.691173, 0.083101], [0.644202, 0.090280], [0.596002, 0.096359], [0.547033, 0.101147], [0.497745, 0.104476], [0.448511, 0.106196], [0.399664, 0.106378], [0.351783, 0.104999], [0.305188, 0.102105], [0.260367, 0.097834], [0.217816, 0.092265], [0.177969, 0.085485], [0.141266, 0.077587], [0.108053, 0.068680], [0.078706, 0.058894], [0.053467, 0.048379], [0.032658, 0.037351], [0.016487, 0.026032], [0.005368, 0.014774], [0.003569, 0.012203], [0.001995, 0.009465], [0.000868, 0.006772], [0.000259, 0.003974], [0.000230, 0.003763], [0.000015, 0.000995], [0.001113, -0.008866], [0.006381, -0.022529], [0.015773, -0.036575], [0.029084, -0.050332], [0.046306, -0.063467], [0.067214, -0.075502], [0.091816, -0.086196], [0.119820, -0.095194], [0.151207, -0.102304], [0.185631, -0.107229], [0.223218, -0.109799], [0.263720, -0.110144], [0.306838, -0.108293], [0.352267, -0.104298], [0.399699, -0.098265], [0.448814, -0.090357], [0.499275, -0.080810], [0.550725, -0.069931], [0.602768, -0.058110], [0.654962, -0.045821], [0.706793, -0.033614], [0.757643, -0.022112], [0.806764, -0.011986], [0.853241, -0.003934], [0.895818, 0.001265], [0.932596, 0.003434], [0.962014, 0.003325], [0.983186, 0.002036], [0.995825, 0.000638]], convexity = 10);
        }
    }   
}

module nrel_s833(){
    linear_extrude(0.1){          
        translate([-0.363,0]){
            polygon(points=[[1.000000, 0.000000], [0.996065, 0.001004], [0.985020, 0.004646], [0.968439, 0.011090], [0.947640, 0.019540], [0.923225, 0.028827], [0.895095, 0.037957], [0.862843, 0.046779], [0.826835, 0.055487], [0.787593, 0.063938], [0.745618, 0.071919], [0.701398, 0.079186], [0.655387, 0.085456], [0.607899, 0.090488], [0.559249, 0.094305], [0.510051, 0.096851], [0.460675, 0.097982], [0.411514, 0.097776], [0.363095, 0.096316], [0.315946, 0.093639], [0.270564, 0.089788], [0.227440, 0.084804], [0.187003, 0.078746], [0.149688, 0.071682], [0.115830, 0.063700], [0.085796, 0.054909], [0.059807, 0.045441], [0.038158, 0.035491], [0.021003, 0.025264], [0.008633, 0.015086], [0.001918, 0.006451], [0.001336, 0.005330], [0.000805, 0.004131], [0.000137, 0.001900], [0.000005, -0.000388], [0.000267, -0.002838], [0.000510, -0.004055], [0.005161, -0.014877], [0.014227, -0.026119], [0.027615, -0.037318], [0.045093, -0.047937], [0.066696, -0.057725], [0.092161, -0.066350], [0.121486, -0.073652], [0.154343, -0.079439], [0.190655, -0.083625], [0.230021, -0.086135], [0.272278, -0.086956], [0.316953, -0.086108], [0.363791, -0.083647], [0.412249, -0.079666], [0.461977, -0.074263], [0.512361, -0.067552], [0.563000, -0.059518], [0.613510, -0.050246], [0.663842, -0.039707], [0.713990, -0.028763], [0.763368, -0.018233], [0.811239, -0.008893], [0.856691, -0.001519], [0.898436, 0.003017], [0.934459, 0.004533], [0.963162, 0.003879], [0.983725, 0.002236], [0.995960, 0.000675]], convexity = 10);
        }
    }   
}

module nrel_s834(){
    linear_extrude(0.1){
        translate([-0.395,0]){
            polygon(points=[[1.000000, 0.000000], [0.996064, 0.000606], [0.984816, 0.003101], [0.967539, 0.007914], [0.945483, 0.014649], [0.919407, 0.022470], [0.889501, 0.030561], [0.855652, 0.038699], [0.818293, 0.046926], [0.777966, 0.055030], [0.735169, 0.062727], [0.690338, 0.069726], [0.643856, 0.075777], [0.596064, 0.080708], [0.547330, 0.084531], [0.498288, 0.087141], [0.449272, 0.088341], [0.400592, 0.088199], [0.352742, 0.086855], [0.306248, 0.084371], [0.261604, 0.080802], [0.219296, 0.076196], [0.179743, 0.070615], [0.143372, 0.064126], [0.110502, 0.056817], [0.081485, 0.048795], [0.056518, 0.040187], [0.035873, 0.031189], [0.019660, 0.022005], [0.008118, 0.012967], [0.001394, 0.004469], [0.001039, 0.003754], [0.000308, 0.001855], [0.000001, 0.000091], [0.000250, -0.001671], [0.000632, -0.002862], [0.000915, -0.003559], [0.006099, -0.010998], [0.016371, -0.019451], [0.031347, -0.027791], [0.050767, -0.035619], [0.074629, -0.042738], [0.102659, -0.048948], [0.134765, -0.054145], [0.170598, -0.058239], [0.209956, -0.061194], [0.252411, -0.062996], [0.297656, -0.063666], [0.345187, -0.063248], [0.394605, -0.061807], [0.445343, -0.059431], [0.496925, -0.056213], [0.548737, -0.052268], [0.600249, -0.047696], [0.650829, -0.042590], [0.699974, -0.037023], [0.747128, -0.031105], [0.791833, -0.024939], [0.833594, -0.018671], [0.872254, -0.012170], [0.907866, -0.006512], [0.939211, -0.002526], [0.965020, -0.000329], [0.984215, 0.000393], [0.996021, 0.000244]], convexity = 10);                   
        }
    }   
}

rotationArray = [0, 0.09, 0.18, 0.27, 0.36, 0.44999999999999996, 0.5399999999999999, 0.6299999999999999, 0.7199999999999999, 0.8099999999999998, 0.8999999999999998, 0.9899999999999998, 1.0799999999999998, 1.17, 1.26, 1.35, 1.4400000000000002, 1.5300000000000002, 1.6200000000000003, 1.7100000000000004, 1.8000000000000005, 1.8900000000000006, 1.9800000000000006, 2.0700000000000007, 2.1600000000000006, 2.2500000000000004, 2.3400000000000003, 2.43, 2.52, 2.61, 2.6999999999999997, 2.7899999999999996, 2.8799999999999994, 2.9699999999999993, 3.059999999999999, 3.149999999999999, 3.239999999999999, 3.3299999999999987, 3.4199999999999986, 3.5099999999999985, 3.5999999999999983, 3.689999999999998, 3.779999999999998, 3.869999999999998, 3.9599999999999977, 4.049999999999998, 4.139999999999998, 4.229999999999998, 4.319999999999998, 4.4099999999999975, 4.499999999999997, 4.589999999999997, 4.679999999999997, 4.769999999999997, 4.859999999999997, 4.949999999999997, 5.0399999999999965, 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Something I wanted to achieve with this project is designing airfoils using OpenSCAD, as a good way to practice for applying this to RC aircraft. Using NREL design recommendations for small wind turbines, I've implemented a turbine blade that incorporates the NREL S835 airfoil at the root, transitioning to the S833 by 30% of the blade length, and then transitioning to the NREL S834 airfoil at 95% of the blade length. The OpenSCAD code uses the hull function to generate a loft through these shapes with a airfoil chord length of 1. The airfoil profiles themselves came from AirfoilTools.com.

Then I use the projection function to slice this airfoil back into 2D polygons at 0.1% intervals of the blade length. I used a cubic spline function in python to generate a smoothed array of turbine blade thicknesses which I copy across to OpenSCAD. This allows me to generate nice smooth variation in turbine blade thickness across its length. Lastly I rotated the blade pitch angle by 45 degrees across the length of the blade. My goal is to build 1000mm long blades, so using the angle of attack data and the average windspeed at my deployment location, I'll incorporate the optimal angle of attack for generating lift data for each of the airfoils, and transition the twist so that at the average windspeed, each "slice" of the airfoil is at it's optimal angle of attack for generating lift. For now however I've just varried the blade pitch angle linearly from 0 at the  base to 45 at the tip.

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