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The real hardware runs Apple 1 Basic !

A project log for Isetta TTL computer

Retro computer built from TTL, with 6502 and Z80 instruction set. Includes video, sound and filesystem. No microprocessor or FPGA.

roelhroelh 04/19/2024 at 19:070 Comments

A major milestone was reached today ! The original Apple 1 BASIC, programmed by WOZ, is running on the real Isetta hardware ! It runs on the intended 12.5 MHz (80nS cycle time).

For character I/O, there is a synchronous serial link with a Raspberry Pi. The screen and the keyboard of the Raspberry Pi are used to communicate with Isetta.

Here you see a screenshot of the RPi screen.  After the ">>" (generated by the RPi) the RPi reads a full input line, echoing it on the screen. Then, after a CR (return), the line of characters is sent to Isetta Apple Basic, and Basic again echoes the characters to the screen. Then the output of the Basic interpreter follows, and the Basic prompt ">". Note that there is an "*** END ERR" because there is no END statement at the end of the program.

PROGRAMMER

Quite some work had to be done after the prototype was soldered. I had to make a Python program on the Raspberry Pi to program the microcode into the three microcode flash chips. On the programmer board  (described in the previous log) a small change was needed. This Python software can also execute arbitrary microcode on Isetta, and run a test program that tests hardware functions.

The programmer can grab the clock of Isetta, by putting the first 74AC163 clock divider into LOAD mode, and providing a new clock (SW generated by RPi) to the first two preset inputs of the 163. The transistor that transferred this clock was, unsurprisingly, not fast while switching OFF, and I suspected that was the reason that I sometimes got a bad working instruction during singlestepping. This transistor also did the 3.3V to 5V translation. I replaced it by a simple diode with a 1N5 cap in parallel. It's a poor man's level converter. At the high RPi 3V3 level, 0.7 V is added by the diode so the ac163 sees around 4V on its input. That worked, errors now occurred rarely, and could be handled by a retry mechanism in the programmer.

How does the application program (the 4K Basic interpreter) get into the main RAM ? I could modify the programmer such that it writes to RAM instead of microcode flash. But I already had a mechanism in place that would also work with a fully stand-alone power-on and reset. A certain part of the microcode copies the BASIC interpreter program from the microcode flash to the main RAM, soon after reset.

COMMUNICATION

Next thing was communication (characters in, characters out) between RPi and Isetta. It should also work when Isetta  generates VGA output, so we are handling a single bit directly after the horizontal interrupt. (That is generated by a simple hardware timer).
The bit handling should always take exactly the same amount of cycles, independent of the data send or received, otherwise there will be jitter in the generated VGA output.

When the VGA output and keyboard are working, we still need this interface to the RPi to transfer files to or from Isetta. We could also use the RPi screen as debugging output while an application runs on the VGA screen.

Since it should also be possible that a PS/2 keyboard is connected to Isetta, the choice was made to use the same receiver hardware and software for the keyboard as well as for data coming from the Raspberry Pi. Since it uses open collector outputs, both clock and data signals can simply be tied together. This combination was not foreseen when the PCB's were designed, so a few wires had to be added.

Communication RX receive driver

The keyboard has two lines, KB_CLK and KB_DATA. Both lines are driven by a open collector output on a standard PS/2 keyboard (pullup resistors in Isetta). If no information is sent, both lines are high. The keyboard receive driver will be able to receive scancodes that are sent by the keyboard. It has the following states:

The keyboard-receive system will also be used to transfer information from the Rasberry Pi to Isetta. The microcode programmer pcb has two open collector outputs for this purpose, that are (on Isetta) directly connected to the two wires coming from the keyboard. On the RPi this uses GPIO27 and GPIO2.
So, with a simple program on the RPi, the RPi keyboard can be used for Isetta. Instead of scancodes, ASCII codes will be sent over the connection. In the future, this ASCII encoding might be slighty changed, so that it does not overlap with scancodes, and Isetta can see if the info comes from a PS/2 keyboard or from the RPi.

Note that a PS/2 keyboard sends the LSB first, while the above receive system stores the first received bit in 
the MSB (used because it gives simpler microcode). So Isetta receives reversed scancodes.

Communication TX transmit driver

The same keyboard driver will also handle traffic in the other direction (This is NOT the system that is used to send information to a PS/2 keyboard ). This uses a third wire called GP_OUT1, that is an output for Isetta and an input for the RPi. It is called GP_OUT1 because it can be used for other purposes when this TX function is not used.

The output is synchronous, clocked by the KB_CLK signal that is generated by the RPi. It requires that the RPi sends a keyboard byte in order to receive the TX information. The RPi must send a low startbit, and if there is no key to send, the databits should be all ones so Isetta sees a FF character and can dismiss it. Sending FF also provides a good synchronisation on the startbit.

In Isetta, data to transmit must be put into the transmit buffer. It can hold 255 characters. 
The keyboard states have the following functions for TX:

In each line interrupt, this RX+TX code will take approx. 16 cycles.

Changes to Apple Basic

Apple Basic uses memory locations for its character I/O. In Isetta, the 8080/Z80 IN/OUT instructions
will be used for I/O. These IN/OUT instructions were also added to the instruction set of the 6502 (with exactly the
same opcode as on the 8080/Z80, possible because 6502 has many unused opcodes).

At this moment, port 0x31 is used for RPi/KB input as well as output. But 0x31 is not yet set in stone.

addr = 0xe3d5;  // address where bytes must be changed in output routine

memory[addr++] = 0xD3; // OUT (opcode 0xD3)
memory[addr++] = 0x31; // port 0x31
memory[addr++] = 0xF0; // BEQ  (try again if buffer was full)
memory[addr++] = 0xFC; // -4
memory[addr++] = 0x60; // RTS


addr = 0xe003;  // address where bytes must be changed in input routine

memory[addr++] = 0xDB; // IN (opcode 0xDB) new keyboard-input instruction
memory[addr++] = 0x31; // port nr
memory[addr++] = 0xF0; // BEQ, loop while buffer is empty
memory[addr++] = 0xFC; // -4
memory[addr++] = 0x09; // ORA #80
memory[addr++] = 0x80; // 
memory[addr++] = 0x60; // RTS,  char in acc.

A lot more to do, a few things:

I bought a PS/2 keyboard online for about 20 Euro, but it keeps sending the same data at fixed intervals. A little online searching learned that my keyboard model only works after it receives a reset command. So that will be a small hardware and software change to add transmitting a reset message to the keyboard.

 Supporting a PS/2 Mouse would also be nice...

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