Both the current sensor and the remaining few bits and pieces have arrived for me to finally finish up the hardware side of the build.
I've updated the OP to include pictures of the schematics and the board, but I'm not releasing the actual source files yet because I'm not 100% sure everything will work yet.
Additionally, I will need to begin the task of programming just how the arduino senses the AC current. The board converts the current into a voltage that fluctuates greatly, so I will need to devise some form of sampling that averages the samples over several wavelengths of the AC frequency (60hz here in America for anybody who doesn't know that).
Everything else works well. The 8266 can communicate with my webserver and the site displays data very cleanly and neatly, as seen in the screenshot in the OP. Stay tuned as I try to get my current sensor sensing some current finally.