I've made real progress here. I have a basic understanding of how the Neopixels work and I'm forming a solid vision of how my system should work.
Initially the system was set up on an Arduino with an LCD screen and two push buttons. When the system was turned on, the first record's Artist and Title were displayed on the LCD and the first LED would light up. The two buttons allowed you to scroll through a list of my record collection changing the info that was displayed on the LCD as well as what LED was currently lit.