All project files are available on Github ( There is a video included in there, and if you can get past the cheesiness of the "approved for public release" music on the video, you will see a few of the cool experiments we did with these muscles. I also threw in one that shows 100 muscles working together.

My hope is that the muscle twisting tools we developed will be useful to other people who also want to play around with TPAMs (TCPMs, TCPs, CPMs... or whatever you want to call them).

This muscle-making appliance was built as part of a research project where we were trying to replicate a human bicep's performance using artificial muscles. We needed a jig that could make artificial muscles consistently enough that 100 or more individual muscle fibers would all work together to generate relatively large forces (33lbs).

The main components of the muscle winding jig are:

Over the course of this project, Shieldex changed the chemistry of their 4-ply conductive sewing thread, which caused all sorts of headaches. I won't bother posting specific instructions for what weights and numbers of twists per length you should put into each muscle, because that is likely to change, but the general process goes something like this:


Training and annealing the muscle: