Mini Hyperloop - Magnetic Levitation Train

Magnetically Levitating and driving small scale version of a Hyperloop

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A Hyperloop enables highly efficient ground transportation, at speeds of an aircraft, which at the same time can be made sustainable (all-electric, no battery).

This project is a small scale version of a Hyperloop, which I developed, designed and manufactured from scratch.

The system consists of a tube including a base station and a linear motor as well as a pod (moving vehicle) containing the levitation system. The Mini-Hyperloop is capable of actual magnetic levitation and driving wirelessly. The entire system is operated by means of an HMI touch screen in the base station.

- main construction based on 3d printed parts
- custom PCBs
- custom electro magnets (wounded coils and milled iron cores)
- PCB based linear motor

The system is absolutely scalable and can be used even in such small format for direct efficient high speed transport of goods.

The vision of this project is to take the transportation of goods and people to the next level - a sustainable future.

First Things First

A full build video of the Mini-Hyperloop as well as function tests.

General Concept of a Hyperloop

The concept of a hyperloop consists of the following components:

The passengers or goods are located in a capsule - the Pod, which is moved along a tube by means of a linear motor. To make the transport as efficient as possible, friction in linear direction is minimized by a magnetic levitation system. To ensure that the pod can move through the tube as frictionlessly as possible, even at high speeds, the air pressure in the tube is drastically reduced, which significantly reduces the air friction, which is quadratic to the speed. This concept allows high speeds to be achieved efficiently and safely, enabling people or goods to be transported from A to B quickly, reliably and when done correctly: sustainable.


Especially in recent years, it has become clear that globalization increasingly demands decentralization: You buy something online and you hardly realize that it has traveled halfway around the world in no time, only to land at your doorstep.

This complex logistics construct is based on ships, planes, trains and trucks, which are not generally associated with sustainable transportation. Especially the transport of goods and also people close to the city represents a heavy burden for the people living there.

Thus, the idea is to develop a transport system that makes long-distance as well as short-distance transport of goods fast, reliable, flexible and, above all, sustainable. The concept of the Hyperloop, a contactless moving vehicle in a vacuum tube, can be used to achieve exactly this. A Hyperloop is scalable, can be built in a wide variety of sizes, and thus can be used for a wide variety of purposes - besides the most popular: passenger transportation.

The concept of the Hyperloop can be used to transport different sized goods in a highly efficient, fast, flexible and sustainable way. Be it over long distances between cities or underground in cities, where it could be installed in already existing tubes.

With the development of the Mini-Hyperloop I want to show that it is possible to implement this technology on a small scale. In this first version, a vacuum tube was initially omitted and the levitation system of the pod was supplied by a battery, which can be replaced in a further version by an inductive power transmission to make the system even more efficient. Nevertheless, this illustrates that it is possible!

Status Quo

The mini hyperloop has a driving distance of one meter. It is able to levitate as well as to drive up and down the track completely contactless. The tube is currently only for illustration purposes. The air pressure is not yet lowered here to minimize air-drag. In addition, the pod is currently powered by a battery. The system is controlled wirelessly by the base station located at the track, what enables positioning of the pod at different speeds as well as safety monitoring


The next step is to extend the track and achieve a higher speed of the pod. To achieve this, the linear motor and the levitation system are to be optimized. In addition, the battery is to be replaced by inductive energy transfer so that the pod is lighter and, above all, sustainable to manufacture - no battery.

Once this is achieved, the first test installations can be set up, whereby the scaled Hyperloop can be used for high-speed transport of goods over short distances. For example, sensitive goods could be transported quickly from A to B in hospitals in this way.

There are no limits for further developments, the only important thing is to "do it" :-)

The Mini Hyperloop

The Mini Hyperloop consists of a magnetically levitating Pod and a track with long stator linear motor which allows for magnetic linear propulsion.

- Levitation magnets with electronics

- Battery

- Magnet array for linear motor


 - acrylic tube (no vacuum...

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  • 1 × structual components of Pod and Tube - all 3D printed
  • 1 × tube Acrylic tube - OD150 mm, L1000 mm
  • 1 × linear motor controller STM ESC-B431
  • 1 × base station main controller Teensy 4.0
  • 1 × Pod electronics Custom electronics board

View all 7 components

  • #4 Mini Hyperloop Prototype

    Adrian Prinz09/12/2023 at 11:22 0 comments

    The finished Mini-Hyperloop prototype

  • #3 Control System Development

    Adrian Prinz09/12/2023 at 10:29 0 comments

    To determine the system dynamics and the design of the control system and associated components, the entire system was simulated in Matlab/Simulink. In addition, the controller was designed and optimized.

  • #2 Final Design

    Adrian Prinz09/12/2023 at 10:23 0 comments

    Once the approximate dimensions and the concept were defined, the concept was adapted on the basis of the main limiting components (battery module, electronics - main PCB, track PCB).

    From this followed the final design including the development of the electronics:

    Tube and Track

    Overall View

    Front view

    Top viewPod - moving vehicle

    The Pod is devided in the capsule, which includes the battery and the moving platform, which includes the levitation system.
    The levitation system is receives power from the battery via spring contacts. The capsule and moving platform are hold together with magnets, what allows for easy disassembly and charging of the capsule.

  • 1# Conception and Design

    Adrian Prinz08/22/2021 at 15:02 0 comments

    I started with the idea of building a small scal Hyperloop system, that is supposed to levitate and drive magnetically and independent of external power.

    I started with a rough CAD design and improved it step by step

    Pod in tube with track:

    Pod (moving vehicle):

View all 4 project logs

  • 1
    Reserved for the next optimized version

    In the current status, the rebuilding is, in my opinion, not yet rewarding. In the next version, the manufacturability will be drastically optimized so that it can be replicated by anyone at home, so we can optimize the system together :)

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Enjoy this project?



c.petrachi wrote 08/31/2023 at 06:28 point

c.petrachi wrote a few seconds agoNo, I mean neodimium supermagnetics for use on POD. Superconductors option will be top solution but is expensive.

  Are you sure? yes | no

Adrian Prinz wrote 08/31/2023 at 11:22 point

Yes, I already use neodym magnets :) Supercoductors would be fun for sure

  Are you sure? yes | no

c.petrachi wrote 09/03/2023 at 16:22 point

Is it possible eliminate battery on POD using neodym magnets on it?

  Are you sure? yes | no

Damir Perisa wrote 08/30/2023 at 18:20 point

Isnt the tube causing higher air resistance? Without the tube, it would be probably way more efficient. As air can move away easier.

Can you elaborate how you came up with the 2 x 2 rains? The maglev trains usually have only one, right? Is there an advantage to your geometry?

Keep up exploring! 

  Are you sure? yes | no

Adrian Prinz wrote 08/30/2023 at 23:54 point

Hi, thanks for your comment!
For now the tube is for demonstation purpose. It is planed to lower the air pressure in the tube to reduce the air drag drastically at high speeds. The maglev trains mainly use quite a different system, with passive coils in the track for levitation.

By using two angled ferro magnetic rails as the track and four electro magnets in the pod, I was able to reduce the amount of actuator to lock five degrees of freedom (only free moving in the direction of the track). The angled rails and electro magnets distribute the attraction force vertically and horizontally, when controlled correctly its possible to guide the system vertically and horizontally as well as rotation.

This is not the most efficient way, but certainly a simpler/ cheaper one :)

  Are you sure? yes | no

c.petrachi wrote 08/30/2023 at 17:25 point

Very interesting. A question: have you think supermagnetics use?



  Are you sure? yes | no

Adrian Prinz wrote 08/30/2023 at 23:56 point

Thank you! Do you mean superconductor for creating the magnetic field? In this scale definitely an extra challenge as long as hot superconductors (working at room temperature) are broadly available. Then it would definitely be an awesome option

  Are you sure? yes | no

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