Electronic sculpture

Explore the spark of life through circuit art

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Electricity is the most important creative medium of our time. I like to build functional circuits that seem oddly alive, challenging our definition of machines and offering insight into the "nature" of life. It is not easy to combine electrical engineering and art because the tasks are often at odds --a classic battle between thought and emotion, logic and intuition, recipe and improv. Electricity requires a certain degree of planning and obedience, while art benefits from unfettered expression. It's a fascinating challenge to bring engineering and art into balance, and we are rewarded with a form of creativity that mirrors the complexities of our own consciousness.

I created this project for two reasons: (1) to enter Hackaday's Circuit Sculpture contest; and (2) to publish my work with sculptural electronics. You can see images of my past work, now spanning two decades, on my website:


A chirping baby bird with synchronized, two-state flashing LEDs (to look like a squawking beak)

Adobe Portable Document Format - 36.32 kB - 01/08/2019 at 11:33


  • 1 × Through-hole resistors
  • 1 × 2N3904 transistors
  • 1 × LEDs Electronic Components / Misc. Electronic Components
  • 1 × 1N418 signal diodes
  • 1 × Electrolytic capacitors (various)

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  • Pretty Bird

    Kelly Heaton03/11/2019 at 17:31 0 comments

    I am making sculptural, chirping bird circuits as part of a larger work in progress. Technically speaking, the circuit below (as seen inside of the transparent mylar bird) is an analog electronic chirp generator with a light-sensitive resistor. All of the electronic components are discrete -- no software or recordings. Notice how its chirp quality changes according to the amount of light seen by the photo-resistors. When the lighting conditions are favorable, the circuit sings "pretty bird." As you can see in the first video, the bird does not always change its song when I cover its photoresistor. That's because I have an LED coupled to the sensor -- so when the LED is turned on at various points during the oscillating cycle, my actions are irrelevant (because the photoresistor "sees" light from the LED).

    Below is a video of another electronic bird sitting on a coffee cup at my bench.

    My art is about the spark of life and what creates it. Therefore, I do not want to hide my electronics in a box: my circuits are meant to be seen. Yet, as an artist who makes work for exhibition, I need to protect the delicate parts from years of dust, audiences, and transportation. Using techniques from paper crafting, I came up with a way to make a sculptural transparent shell. I also devised a method to stabilize my freeform soldering onto a transparent Mylar substrate. Here are some images of the circuit prior to insertion in the bird's body:

    Some images of the bird after assembly:

    I may turn this sculpture into a kit that you can build yourself. Message me if you'd be interested: info (at)

  • Singing Mama with Baby Bird

    Kelly Heaton01/08/2019 at 00:13 0 comments

    I've built artistic circuits for years, but when the Hackaday challenge came along, I took it as an opportunity to build a purely sculptural circuit. I was intrigued by the challenge to ditch all forms of 2D and go completely freeform. (Incidentally, non-traditional planes for embedding electronics, like paper and canvas, are a great way to make electrified paintings. Totally freeform circuitry is an eccentric labor of love... but then again, so are all forms of art.) 

    Here's what I ended up making for the contest, a mama bird with her baby in a nest:

    Disclaimer: the branch is wood, but I had to put the nest on something... and I preferred the contrast of a natural material over a piece of wire. I could have put them on a big electrical transformer, like some birds do for reasons I can't understand, but I didn't have a transformer handy. 

    However, I do own loads of surplus resistors in different colors, collected over the years, which I use to create mosaic effects in my art. If you want a similar aesthetic, don't buy new resistors -- get some old surplus components and/or unsorted resistors for cheap. You can always measure them (and combine them in series or parallel) if you want to use them in a functional circuit.

    The shape of the mama bird is made entirely out of resistors and she's hollow inside, which is where I carefully, painstakingly installed her freeform singing circuit. The baby bird is nestled in a nest of wires --not altogether different from the real thing-- and the light-colored object in the nest is an 8 ohm speaker wrapped in heat-shrink tubing (to mechanically dampen the sound). Both birds have a photoresistor that enables you to interactively affect their chirping. Here's a video showing the pair making their avian sounds:

    I used a small segmented display to visualize the baby bird's yapping beak. I love how it "shuts up" when you wave your hand in front of the photoresistor. I have uploaded my baby bird schematic to the project files so you can check out how I achieved this effect using discrete hardware components. 

    The mama bird's form was time-consuming and required two types of jig. First, and most importantly, the overall shape of her body: it's very hard to create a complex shape from hundreds or thousands of resistors without some guidance, especially because wires are prone to deform and collapse inward on a volume. After some experimentation, I discovered that regular modeling clay is a great substrate around which to form and solder electronics. Don't use plasticine clay - it will melt if you solder near it.

    Below are a series of photographs showing how I made the shape of the mama bird:

    First, I modeled her rough form in clay. The volumetric proportions must be accurate, but the details don't matter -- you'll use needle nose pliers to shape the final touches when your wire sculpture is nearly complete. Don't cut corners on the basic volumetric form or else your fundamental proportions will be wrong, and that's hard to fix.

    Next, I arranged resistors on the surface of the clay form and soldered them with the aid of a jig (more details on the second jig in a moment). Press the resistors into the clay to hold them steady. Natural clay is a great substrate onto which to solder, assuming it's not too wet and mushy. Don't worry about getting your resistors dirty, because you can wash the sculpture gently before you add active components (just leave time to dry if you plan to use the sculptural resistors as part of a functional circuit).

    I played around with different patterns to define regions with texture as well as color. 

    As you go along, leave yourself an opening to remove the "resistor shell" from the clay form. I left a seam along one side, underneath the bird's wing, where it would not be visible in the final piece. I also used this seam to insert the functional electronics inside.

    ... Read more »

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Enjoy this project?



Paul Gallagher wrote 01/16/2019 at 02:07 point

I didn't need to see the official announcement to know this is a winner;-) Incredibly inspirational piece of work, thank you!

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Kelly Heaton wrote 01/18/2019 at 20:55 point

@Paul Gallagher thank you so much!

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Mike Szczys wrote 01/11/2019 at 20:18 point

Jaw-dropping! The demo is so nice to watch by itself, but seeing how you fabricated the bird is so awesome. Thanks you for sharing those details!

I really love the interweaving of the resistors on the breast, it really reminds me of down feathers. The ring of resistor bodies at the neck, and the curve of the wing where it meets the body, all remarkable. This brings a huge smile to my face and I got sucked in and spent waaaaay too much time adoring this creation. Kudos to you!

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Kelly Heaton wrote 01/13/2019 at 17:59 point

Thank you, @Mike Szczys -- your comments mean a lot. The wind beneath my wings.

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Yann Guidon / YGDES wrote 01/09/2019 at 03:06 point

It's art pieces like that that made me want to learn electronics in my childhood, in the late 80s...

Thanks for sharing and please continue !!!

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Kelly Heaton wrote 01/09/2019 at 18:12 point

Thank you for the encouragement - It's an honor to inspire!

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Morning.Star wrote 01/08/2019 at 21:12 point

Jaw-dropping mad skills. You're not from around here either, are you lol.

Fancy taking over this rotten little planet with me, honey? XD

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Kelly Heaton wrote 01/09/2019 at 02:49 point

thank you 😊🙏

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Jose Ignacio Romero wrote 01/08/2019 at 19:12 point

This gives birds nest circuitry a whole new meaning!

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Kelly Heaton wrote 01/09/2019 at 02:48 point

thank you 😊🙏

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Richard Hogben wrote 01/08/2019 at 01:07 point

Nice. Don't forget to enter it!

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Kelly Heaton wrote 01/08/2019 at 02:36 point

Thank you! I won't forget :-)

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