Thanks to @Morning.Starfor drawing the project's avatar :-) Of course the current source is missing, but it's on purpose. It's a reminder that a nice looking idea can be badly engineered and you have to try it to see how or why it doesn't work. This picture is the simplest expression of this principle :-)
See also #NPM - New Programming Model
I must emphasize: this is not a "general introduction" to CPU or their design but a general analysis of how I design MY processors:
- The #F-CPU
- The YASEP : #Discrete YASEP - #YASEP Yet Another Small Embedded Processor - #microYasep . . .
- The YGREC #YGREC16 - YG's 16bits Relay Electric Computer - #YGREC-РЭС15-bis - #YGREC-Si - #YGREC8 - #YGREC-ECL - #YGRECmos
Note: these are "general purpose" cores, not DSP or special-purpose processors, so other "hints" and "principles" would apply in special cases.
I list these "principles" because :
- I encourage people to follow, or at least examine and comment, these advices, heuristics, tricks. I have learned from many people and their designs, and here I contribute back.
- They help people understand why I chose to do something in a certain way and not another in some of my designs. I have developed my own "style" and I think my designs are distinctive (if not the best because they are mine, hahaha.)
- It's a good "cookbook" from which to pull some tricks, examine them and maybe enhance them. It's not a Bible that is fixed for ever. Of course this also means that it can't be exhaustive. I document and explain how and why this, and not that, along the way...
- I started to scratch the surface with #AMBAP: A Modest Bitslice Architecture Proposal but it was lacking some depth and background. AMBAP is an evolution of all those basic principles.
- The 80s-era "canonical RISC" structure needs a long-awaited refresh !
- This can form the foundations for lectures, lessons, all kinds of workshops and generally educational activities.
Hope you like it :-)
1. Use binary, 2s complement numbers
2. Use registers.
3. Use bytes and powers-of-two
4. Your registers must be able to hold a whole pointer.
5. Use byte-granularity for pointers.
6. Partial register writes are tricky.
7. PC should belong to the register set
8. CALL is just a MOV with swap
9. Status registers...
10. Harvard vs Von Neuman
11. Instruction width
12. Reserved opcode values
13. Register #0 = 0
14. Visible states and atomicity
15. Program Position Independence
16. Program re-entrancy
17. Interrupt vector table
18. Start execution at address 0
19. Reset values
20. Memory granularity
21. Conditional execution and instructions
22. Sources of conditions
23. Get your operands as fast as possible.
24. Microcode is evil.
26. Input-Output architecture
27. Tagged registers
29. Register windows
30. Interrupt speed
31. Delay slots
32. Reset values (bis)
33. TTA - Transfer-Triggered Architectures
34. Divide (your code) and conquer
35. How to design a (better) ALU
36. I have a DWIM...
38. More condition codes
39. How to name opcodes ?
40. Be ready to change your opcode map a lot, until you can't
41. The perfect ISA doesn't exist.
42. Learn and know when to stop
(some drafts are still pending completion)