• V3.01 Stepper Motor Control Board

    05/22/2017 at 11:20 0 comments

    Prototype design for the triple turret grating assembly for the 3D-printable Raman Spectrometer

  • The ZEN of Design Simplicity

    10/03/2016 at 22:28 0 comments

    There is a basic philosophy that drives my projects, ZEN, there is a saying; “Not thinking about anything is Zen. Once you know this, walking, sitting, or lying down, everything you do is Zen.”

    Each aspect of my projects are rooted in these teachings, if you let your ears see and your eyes hear, then you can realize the subtle complexities that are, my simple designs.

    In this way, I help myself by providing sometimes abstract knowledge, where its purpose seems convoluted in that which can be made to be much simpler.

    The much finer genius lies in making the complex, seem very simple, there are no qualifiers needed to justify the look of how my projects turn out, they just are, almost every part I make is by hand, or formed by hand, from the most basic materials I can use, there is a beauty in that.

    A lost art that is never really lost, just ignored, so I center myself and I am mindful of everything I am doing, that is ZEN.

    Finally, “To follow the path, look to the master, follow the master, walk with the master, see through the master, become the master.”

  • Research & Development Page [Chemistry & Spectroscopy]

    09/13/2016 at 08:23 0 comments

    This section is dedicated to research and development in physical chemistry and spectroscopy

    Effects of Solvents on Fluorescence of Biological Dyes Section ll

    3 Biological Dyes in Water, Ethanol and Methanol

    Author, David H. Haffner Sr.



    In most polar solutions, such as water and alcohol solutions, ions diffuse more rapidly than covalently bonded molecules, because most ions are smaller than most molecules, and because of their greater polarity caused by a negative or positive charge, ions more readily bind to the molecules of the solution wherein diffusion occurs, and thus flow readily with the solution, while covalently bonded molecules, especially if they are nonpolar or large, will diffuse very little in a polar solution such as water or alcohol, because they will not mix with the solution.

    Analytical reagent grade solvents and compounds were used for preparations. Denatured Ethanol; 90.5% 200_Proof Ethanol(CAS: 64-17-5) 4.5% IPA (CAS: 67-63-0) 5% Acetate (CAS: 109-60-4) Duda Energy. Methanol; 99.65+% Concentration_Formula CH4O (CAS: 67-56-1) Duda Energy. Distilled water (0_TDS {total dissolved solids}] _NOT deionized.

    DH4.0 v4 Spectrometer; CMOS Camera Module: JDEPC-OV05, ruling density of the DVD grating is 8.5 GB which equates to 2770 lines per mm. The slit width is now 0.09mm and a spectral bandwidth of 2.13nm, using the new Gillette razor blade design I made.

    Software used in data processing is; Spekwin32 v1.72.2P6

    Using [6] 15ml 120mm length centrifuge test tubes, each tube had a transfer of 2 drops from a glass eye dropper of the appropriate biological dye. Then distilled water with a TDS (total dissolved solids) reading of 0, was transferred along with the volumetric equivalent of 10% ethanol and Methanol v/v in the appropriate sample containers.

    Dyes used were; Rhodamine B; CAS: 81-88-9 (powdered form) 479.01 g/mol, Eosin Y; 1% Aqueous solution CAS: 17372-87-1 and Safranin O; 1% Aqueous solution CAS: 477-73-6

    Introduction and Discussion

    Ethanol is primarily a non-polar solvent but does exhibit some polar properties. Methanol on the other hand is primarily polar, as is Isopropyl alcohol, in this follow up study to the one done with Isopropyl alcohol and 5 biological dyes, I examined the effect of 2 solvents with opposite polarities, Ethanol and Methanol. The same experimental conditions were applied in this study as they were in the previous one “Effects of Solvents on Fluorescence of Biological Dyes” posted on; 8/27/2016.

    I expected to see a much stronger effect on the fluorophores in the polar solvent than what the data suggested, Safranin O had the most dramatic red shift @ 10nm+ for Methanol than for Ethanol, which the dye’s emission peak was @ 585nm (ethanol) and @ 595nm for (methanol.) Rhodamine B was more sensitive to Methanol than the Ethanol solution which can be seen in figure.6. Water is also a polar substance, so the addition of a non-polar solvent such as Ethanol in theory, should have decreased the solvent effect on the excited state energy level.

    The opposite then, should be true for the Methanol solution, increasing the solvent polarity should produce a correspondingly larger reduction in the energy level of the excited state, and this can be seen to a degree in figure.6 also in the lower panels for the absorption data plots, absorption for Eosin Y and Safranin O have a more defined and tighter bandwidth, were in the top panels of figure.6 for Ethanol you can see a more spread out bandwidth for Eosin Y and Safranin O.

    What I found truly fascinating was for Rhodamine B, the excitation states are behaving in the opposite manner than what one would expect, but this is what I suspect is happening; If a certain amount of rhodamine B is uniformly distributed in a solvent that it is soluble in, such as water, it should fluoresce without any self quenching effects. However, in presence of the ethanol in the water, solubility becomes a problem and the rhodamine b molecules get encapsulated...

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